Outline and evaluate research into the effects of age of witnesses on accuracy of eyewitness testimony (12 marks)
I don't really know what to write for this question. I have the AO1 bit down - I have written about studies by Flin et al. and Memon et al. and Loftus et al. I just have no idea what to write for AO2! I can talk a bit about the pros and cons of lab experiments and field experiments, but there is not that much else to write.
Does anyone know of any evaluation points I could use in this essay?
- Individual differences/ participant variables, sampling/ research design and how that might reduce the validity of the study, reliability and reductionism might be a good place to start? I'm presuming you'll have dealt with stuff like demand characteristics and mundane realism already with regards to your existing points.
Loftus and Palmer's experiment used students - this is only a small percentage of society, thus results lack population validity (extent to which results can be generalized to the population)
- Lab experiments for L&P's experiment means contrived, artificial setting. Thus, participants may alter their behaviour, meaning how they react won't necessarily be the same as their behaviour in the real world. Means that the results lack validity.
- Individual differences; for the speed perception task, as students, their experiences with cars and car-speed may differ to those older, experienced drivers who have had years of driving under their belt.
YOu can split into into an AO1 and an A02 for a couple of the different effects on EWT accuracy
AO1 - misleading info effect (loftus and palmer)
AO2 - limitations = loftus and palmer is a lab study so lacks mundane realism etc
study of 10 witnesses to a real life crime found no effect of misleading questions
AO1 - age effect
AO2 - evauate
AO1 - anxiety effect (armed bank robbery showed those with most anxiety = highest EWT accuracy)
AO2 - Christianson and Hubinette research contradicts
apparent contradiction explained by Yerkes-Dodson curve
Conc=EWT not very reliable due to so many factors that can effect them
Historical bias - it was Flin was 1992 and times have changed since then, children might be more or less observant to crimes or have a greater or worse memory
Cultural bias - Flin was a western study, you can't apply the findings to eastern/collectivist cultures because children are raised differently so they're different and finding can't be generalised
Historical and cultural bias - works every time