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Who's doing the psychology resit tomorrow (edxcel) watch

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    January 2013 mark scheme if anybody wants to have a look.

    1 Age, sex and intelligence are all examples of
    Answer Mark
    A situational variables
    B matched pairs
    C participant variables
    D demand characteristics
    (1 AO3)
    2 The study by Godden and Baddeley (1975) used which type of design?
    Answer Mark
    A Matched pairs
    B Repeated measures
    C Independent groups
    D Correlation
    (1 AO1)
    3 Which of the following is a strength of random sampling?
    Answer Mark
    A It is a quick convenient and economical form of sampling.
    B The researcher may be biased by choosing helpful participants.
    C It provides the best chance of an unbiased representative
    D It minimises order effects making the study reliable.
    (1 AO3)
    4 A disadvantage of quantitative data is that it
    Answer Mark
    A gives data that can be tested to see if the results are
    due to chance
    B might produce narrow and unrealistic information
    C is hard to replicate due to lack of control
    D produces rich, detailed information
    (1 AO3)
    5 What is the purpose of a null hypothesis?
    Answer Mark
    A To make an experiment more reliable and valid.
    B To ensure each participant has an equal chance of taking part.
    C To prevent any confounding variables from affecting the results.
    D To see if any difference or relationship is due to chance.
    (1 AO3)
    6 Getting stored information out of memory is also known as
    Answer Mark
    A forgetting
    B storage
    C problem solving
    D retrieval
    (1 AO1)
    7 Which of the following is a weakness of natural experiments?
    Answer Mark
    A They have high ecological validity as they are carried out
    in a natural environment.
    B They may be difficult to replicate as the independent
    variable is not manipulated.
    C They are likely to suffer from order effects as they are in a
    natural environment.
    D There is no dependent variable, which makes them less valid.
    (1 AO3)
    8 Julie is telling her class that society needs to follow orders from
    authority figures to prevent chaos.
    Which theory from social psychology is Julie talking about?
    Answer Mark
    A Social identity
    B Agency
    C Charismatic leadership
    D Realistic conflict
    (1 AO1)
    For questions 9 and10 choose TWO answers from A, B, C, D and E.
    9 Which two of the following are the best examples of shallow
    Answer Mark
    A Ian is checking his essay for spelling mistakes during his
    lunch break.
    B Ismail is summarising his speech before he leads Friday prayer.
    C Karen is sitting in her car listening to music on the radio
    D Peta is making some revision notes before taking her driving
    theory test.
    E Kevin is explaining what he did on holiday on his online blog.
    (2 AO1)
    10 Which two of the following statements are true about Milgram’s
    (1963) study of obedience?
    Answer Mark
    A The task required the participant to read out word pairs.
    B Milgram himself was the actual experimenter in the original study.
    C The participants were all Milgram’s friends and family.
    D The participant was told to move up two switches at a time for each
    wrong answer.
    E 26 out 40 participants continued to the maximum voltage.
    (2 AO1)
    Section B
    11 (a) Many parents complain that their children watch too much TV. Imagine
    that you have been asked to carry out a survey to see whether
    teenagers or their parents watch more hours of TV.
    Write a directional (one tailed) alternative hypothesis for your survey.
    Answer Mark
    No credit for null and non directional (two tailed) hypothesis
    Example of a one mark answer
    Teenagers will watch more TV/eq;
    Example of a two mark answer
    Teenagers will watch more hours of TV than their parents (or vice –
    0 marks Either no mention of an (one tailed) directional hypothesis
    or a very unclear prediction
    1 mark A basic and appropriate directional (one tailed) hypothesis
    with little elaboration. Weak IV or DV mentioned.
    2 marks A clear and appropriate directional (one tailed) hypothesis
    with good elaboration/operationalisation. Both IV and DV are present
    and appropriate to hypothesis.
    (2 AO3)
    General Instructions
    11(b)-12 Marking points are indicative, not comprehensive and other points should
    be credited. In each case consider ‘or words to that effect’. Each bullet
    point is a marking point unless otherwise stated, and each point made by
    the candidate must be clearly and effectively communicated.
    11 (b)(i) Which participant design would be used in your survey?
    Answer Mark
    Reject methods or ‘different participants’.
    If more than one answer given accept the first one.
    • Independent groups
    • Independent measures
    • Unrelated design
    • Independent [single word only]
    • Between groups design
    • Unrelated [single word only]
    • Matched pairs
    • Matched
    (1 AO3)
    Look for other reasonable marking points
    11 (b)(ii) Explain why the design you used in (b)(i) is appropriate for your
    Answer Mark
    2 marks for a complete answer, 1 mark for a partial answer.
    Refer to levels at the end of the question
    T.E. – if (b)(i) is blank but (b)(ii) gives a correct explanation for the
    appropriateness of independent measures / matched pairs then full
    marks can be obtained.
    If (b)(i) is incorrect and (b)(ii) clearly talks about independent
    measures / matched pairs, no credit.
    If (b)(i) is incorrect but (b)(ii) correctly explains (b)(i) then (b)(ii) can
    gain credit up to 1 mark as long as (b)(i) is a design. If (bi) is not a
    design then (bii) = 0 marks.
    0 marks No rewardable material (incorrect design / method)
    1 mark A basic explanation with a brief outline addressing 1-2 of the
    points above.
    2 marks. A clear explanation and candidate has also included some
    appropriate elaboration addressing points above
    Examples of level 1 points:
    Need two groups to compare the results
    Repeated measures would not be suitable as you cannot be both a
    parent and their teenager simultaneously
    There is no other way to see if two different groups have two
    different behaviours
    Examples of level 2 points:
    A comparison group is required to see if the IV (parent or teenager)
    has an effect on the DV (amount of TV watched). One person cannot
    be in both groups at the same time (both teenager and their parent))
    (Level 2)
    Look for other reasonable marking points.
    (2 AO3)
    11 (c) With reference to your survey into television viewing hours, explain
    two ethical guidelines that you would need to consider.
    Answer Mark
    Points made must be consistent with the survey
    Note - If they do not reference the study at least once, max 1
    All ethical guidelines are applicable here. If more than two are given
    mark all and credit the best.
    1 ID in total for both guidelines + 3 for explanation
    Right to withdraw;
    The parents / teenagers had to know that they could pull out from
    the survey at any time and withdraw the data they had given/eq; (1st
    And reassured that any data would be destroyed if necessary (2nd
    The parents / teenagers should be told all about the purpose of the
    survey on TV viewing so they know what they have participated
    in/eq; (1st mark)
    When telling the participants about the research it’s important that
    parents and teenagers are not debriefed together as it may cause
    potential embarrassment/eq; (2nd mark)
    Informed consent;
    The parents / teenagers must give their permission to take part in
    the survey after they are told what is involved/eq; (1st mark)
    This is to ensure they are fully aware and understand what will
    happen/eq; (2nd mark)
    The results and personal details of the parents / teenagers should not
    in any way be made public to anyone without their permission/eq; (1st
    As people have a right for such information to remain private/eq; (2nd
    Look for other reasonable marking points.
    (4 AO3)
    11 (d) Explain why a survey would be the best research method to use for
    this particular investigation.
    Answer Mark
    Must make at least one reference to this survey (parents /
    teenagers/ TV) to access full marks or MAX 2)
    Points made must be consistent with the design named in (bi)
    • If parents/teenagers are selected at random and a large enough
    sample it is possible to generalise results to a larger
    • Closed ended questions can be used that have fixed
    answers, or open ended questions with no preset answers
    so surveys have more flexibility than other methods such
    as laboratory experiments/eq; (2 marks)
    • Questionnaires completed individually in private allow
    parents/teenagers to be honest about answers. This in turn
    gives the method higher ecological validity/eq;
    • A survey would be more ethical than a laboratory experiment as
    participants are not being made to watch possibly unsuitable
    • Closed questions give quantitative data which can be analysed
    through graphs and charts which can be useful when
    summarising data/eq;
    • The survey may use standardised questions (procedure) which
    can then be repeated and tested for reliability/eq;
    Look for other reasonable marking points.
    (4 AO3)
    12 Your younger brother will be starting psychology at college soon and
    wants to know about the underlying concepts of the Cognitive
    Describe how the Cognitive Approach explains human behaviour.
    Answer Mark
    1 marks per point/elaboration. Real life examples should be credited if
    they help illustrate a point.
    • Cognitive psychologists compare the human brain to a
    • Information is taken in by the senses before being processed in
    the brain/eq;
    • The major influence on human behaviour and emotion is how
    the mind processes information/eq;
    • It is then stored and retrieved from storage during recall/eq;
    • Information comes into a computer through a keyboard or
    software disk. Humans receive information through their
    • The computer then runs programs to process the information.
    Humans process the information via the central nervous system
    and the brain/eq;
    • The computer gives out output in terms of a printout and
    humans give a wide variety of outputs as behaviour/eq;
    • We encode, store and retrieve information which makes up our
    • Theories of forgetting can tell us that we forget things due to
    availability / accessibility problems/eq;
    • Memory is not like a tape recorder and can be influenced by
    external events and internal mechanisms/eq;
    Max 1 OVERALL (such as pure description) of models / theories
    / studies etc
    • The MSM is concerned with different types of memory stores
    and the role of rehearsal/eq;
    • LOP tries to explain why some things are better remembered
    than others/eq;
    • Cue dependent theory suggests that forgetting is a result of
    inaccessible cues (state and context)/eq;
    • Interference would suggest that forgetting is due to new
    information getting in the way of old information and vice
    Look for other reasonable marking points
    (4 AO1)
    13 Explain the difference between prejudice and discrimination. You must
    use evidence from psychological research in your answer.
    Answer Mark
    Suitable research includes:
    Sherif (1961)
    Tajfel et al (1970)
    Reicher and Haslam (2006)
    Lalonde (1992)
    Social Identity/ Realistic conflict Theory
    There are others
    Refer to levels below
    0 marks No rewardable material
    1 mark A basic difference / correct understanding of each given
    • Prejudice means to pre-judge and discrimination means to act on
    the prejudice/eq; one mark
    • Prejudice involves feelings of dislike and discrimination involves
    insulting those you are prejudiced against/eq; one mark
    2 marks A clear difference / definition of each given with no /
    incorrect reference to evidence OR a basic difference with correct
    reference to evidence
    • Prejudice involves feelings of dislike, hostility and fear based on
    stereotypes and discrimination involves actions based on these
    fears such as avoidance or physical attacks/eq; two marks
    3 marks A clear difference / definition of each given with
    appropriate reference to evidence
    • Prejudice is a learned attitude towards a target which can be
    positive or negative, when the prejudiced attitude leads to
    prejudiced actions this is called discrimination. For example, in
    the robbers cave study the eagles burned the rattlers flag/eq;
    three marks
    (3 AO1)
    General Instructions
    14-15 Marking points are indicative, not comprehensive and other points should
    be credited. In each case consider ‘or words to that effect’. Each bullet
    point is a marking point unless otherwise stated, and each point made by
    the candidate must be clearly and effectively communicated.
    14 Your friend is helping you revise and wants to see if you can pick out
    the most important points from theories you have studied.
    Your friend has asked you to explain two features from the cue
    dependent theory of forgetting.
    Outline two features of the cue dependent theory of forgetting that
    you think are important.
    Answer Mark
    2 marks for each feature (any concept within the theory)
    If more than two given mark all and credit the best two
    NOTE Repetition of a feature using similar wording is not credited e.g
    first feature – state cues, second feature – emotion
    Evaluation points on their own are not features, but if used
    appropriately could be credited as elaboration of a feature
    Studies can be credited only if they add to the outline of the feature
    e.g. cues
    • When cues present at encoding are not present at retrieval then
    forgetting may occur/eq;
    • Cues (or prompts) are like additional pieces of information that
    guide us to the information we are seeking a bit like the
    contents page of a book/eq;
    • These memory cues may be necessary to access information
    that is available but not accessible/eq;
    e.g. context cues
    • These are environmental cues such as your classroom/eq;
    • For example when someone goes upstairs to get something and
    forgets what it was, they might remember again when they are
    back downstairs in the same place (context) they first thought
    about it/eq;
    e.g. state cues
    • These are cues internal to the person such as being excited or
    • For example if you learn something when in a relaxed mood but
    cannot recall it when in a tense mood/eq;
    e.g accessibility (rather than availability)
    • The theory believes that memory is still available but the
    problem is accessibility/eq;
    (4 AO1)
    • The issue is about cues at the time of encoding being
    e.g. the cognitive environment
    • Information present in the individuals cognitive environment
    will determine how much they remember
    • For example information encoded using the 5 senses will be
    better retrieved if it matches the cognitive environment at recall
    Look for other reasonable marking points
    15 Some tension has arisen at a college because the Principal has
    allowed Mr Page’s class to go on a special trip but Mr Wood’s class
    has not been allowed to go. The Principal’s decision has caused lots of
    resentment amongst staff and students alike. Mr Page and his class
    are looking forward to the trip but are getting lots of hostility from
    the other class.
    Use your understanding of prejudice and/or obedience to explain this
    Answer Mark
    1 mark per point/elaboration. Real life examples should be credited if
    they help illustrate a point.
    Giving marks for elaboration where appropriate is particularly
    important so that the full range of marks is available.
    Each point made must be linked to the stimulus (e.g. the
    principal/class/Mr Wood/Mr Page/students/trip etc) to be credited.
    However, any points using research to elaborate an already linked
    point can be credited.
    Possible material that could be used for this question includes: social
    categorisation; social identification; social comparison; agency theory
    • Both groups may believe they are the in group and categorise
    themselves as such at the expense of the other group (out
    • This in group favouritism to their own group / class may have
    led to discrimination in order to protect their own self
    • The principal is in a position of authority which may cause Mr.
    Page to obey her commands to go on the trip/eq;
    • Mr. Page and his class are just obeying the authority of the
    principal as they are in an agentic state/eq;
    • Some of Mr. Page’s class may not actually want to do go on the
    trip and may experience moral strain when doing so/eq;
    • In identifying with their own class they may have exaggerated
    differences with the other class e.g. better teacher/
    • Realistic conflict theory suggests competition has arisen due to
    (6 AO2)
    the prize on offer of going on the trip/eq; (1st mark) The
    Robber’s Cave study showed how rival groups acted against one
    another in their own self-interest/eq; (2nd mark)
    • An in group is deindividualised rather than each acting as an
    individual so responsibility might be deferred (and actions taken
    such as hostility)/eq;
    Look for other reasonable marking points
    16 Haider watches a film at the cinema but when telling his friends about
    it the next day he cannot remember everything about it.
    Using theories of forgetting and/or memory, explain why Haider has
    forgotten details about the film.
    Answer Mark
    Each point made must be linked to the stimulus (e.g.
    Haider/cinema/film/friends/he) to be credited. However, any points
    using research evidence to elaborate an already linked point can be
    DO NOT CREDIT descriptions of the theories/studies themselves.
    • He is not in the same environment when talking to his friends
    and so lacks both context and state cues which would help him
    • In a limited capacity short term memory some details of the
    film may be displaced by others, causing forgetting of important
    • He may not have understood bits of the film (used deeper
    processing) and used shallow processing instead which will
    result in poorer recall/eq;
    • He did not reinforce / rehearse / repeat the memory to
    strengthen his engram / memory trace/ which will have thus
    • He may have repressed bits of the film which were unpleasant /
    tragic / horrific which means he has pushed them to the back of
    his mind to protect himself/eq;
    • He only used maintenence rehearsal rather than elaborative
    which means info wasnt really understood enough to go into his
    • He may have reconstructed his memory of the film and bits that
    did not fit his existing schema may have been distorted or
    lost/eq;(1st mark) Bartlett (1932) found that participants
    added detail that wasn’t there and left things out from the
    original story/eq; (2nd mark)
    • He may not have rehearsed details of the film and so not
    transferred information into LTM (1st mark) and will be less
    (6 AO2)
    able to recall detail than those who did transfer information
    from STM to LTM/eq; (2nd mark)
    • He may have not been paying full attention to all the film and
    therefore confabulated / reconstructed some of his recall/eq;
    • Later learning / experiences may interfere with recall of what he
    saw (retroactive interference) (1st mark) so if Haider was more
    ‘active’ after watching the film he may recall less than had he
    been more ‘inactive’/eq; (2nd mark)
    Look for other reasonable marking points
    *17 Milgram carried out a number of variations of his original (1963) study
    of obedience. These variations attracted similar criticism to that of his
    original (1963) study.
    Describe and evaluate one of Milgram’s variation studies.
    No credit for answers PURELY on Milgram’s original study
    If more than one variation given then mark all and credit the
    No credit for any study NOT conducted and written up by
    Milgram, as one of his variations e.g Meeus & Raaijmakers
    (1986), Slater (2004) etc
    Indicative Content
    Refer to levels at the end of the indicative content.
    A01: Knowledge and understanding of variation study
    A02: Application/evaluation of study.
    Description and specific evaluation
    (evaluation specific to each variation in italics)
    e.g. teacher forces learners hand onto shock plate
    • To see if level of obedience increased or decreased when
    teacher and learner are in same room
    • At each incorrect answer the victim was shocked only when the
    teacher forced his hand on a shock plate
    • At 150 volts, the learner refused to place his hand on the plate,
    and the experimenter ordered the subject to hold the victim's
    hand on the plate
    • Twelve of forty subjects (30 %) forcibly held the victim's hand
    in place and continued to administer shocks up to the
    maximum 450 volts
    • Obedience decreased (in relation to the original experiment) as
    the subject came into close proximity with the victim
    • Ethically more distressing and less believable than other
    e.g. rebellious or obedient fellow participants (as correct from p15
    • to test whether rate of obedience is influenced by rebellious or
    obedient fellow participants
    • 80 male ps took part in either of two conditions and all were
    matched for age and occupation with original sample
    • Condition 1 had two rebellious stooges who refused to carrying
    on shocking after 150V and 210V respectively
    • Condition 2 had two obedient stooges who gave shocks
    without protest
    • In condition one 50% of real ps refused to carry on past 150V
    and only 6/40 (15%) OR 4/40 (10%) went to 450V
    • In condition 2 29 ps (72.5%) went to 450V
    • The presence of fellow ps made a difference to rates of
    obedience and the rebellious stooges had a larger effect on ps
    than the obedient ones
    • The conditions each had careful matching for controls so
    individual differences would not affect the results
    e.g. distant authority figure
    • Too see if it is easier to resist the orders from an authority
    figure if they are not close by
    • The experimenter instructed and prompted the teacher by
    telephone from another room
    • Obedience fell to 20.5%
    • many participants cheated and missed out shocks or gave less
    voltage than ordered to
    • This shows when the authority figure is close by then obedience
    is more likely
    • Application to police / teachers etc as demonstrates an
    authority needs to be present in order for levels of obedience to
    remain high
    e.g. two teacher condition
    • To see whether less personal responsibility increases obedience
    • Participants could instruct an assistant teacher to press the
    • The assistant teacher actually delivered the shocks while the
    senior teacher just read out the word list
    • 95% (compared to 65% in the original study) shocked to the
    maximum 450 volts
    • This shows how diffusion of responsibility can increase obedience
    • Could be viewed as less distressing for real participant as they
    are not directly pressing the switches as compared to first
    e.g. experiment is conducted in downtown Bridgeport / private office
    • Participants were led to believe that the experiment was
    conducted by a private research firm
    • This single difference decreased obedience rate from 65% to
    • private research firms are viewed as less prestigious than
    certain universities which affected behaviour
    • it is easier under these conditions to abandon the belief in the
    experimenter's essential decency
    • Took place in a real setting giving it higher ecological validity
    than other lab based variations
    Generic Evaluation
    • The procedure is easy to replicate as most variations were in a
    controlled setting which gives the experimenter control over
    • Lacks ecological validity as the task of ‘giving’ electric
    shocks to a stranger is not something people encounter
    in everyday life
    • Procedure may be prone to demand characteristics as
    participants may have guessed nature of experiment due to
    • However 80% who were surveyed said they believed the shocks
    were painful and there were also visible signs of mental anguish,
    e.g. sweating, these signs cannot be faked
    • The studies are not ethical as they put pressure on the
    participants deceive them and do not allow the full right to
    • All participants were thoroughly debriefed and the majority were
    glad to have taken part
    Milgram did ask / survey colleagues to see if participants would obey
    and it was generally thought they would not
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