helpme456
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Can anyone please help me with genetic engineering please, I am really struggling.

What I understand so far is that DNA is isolated and then added to a vector so that it can be added to host cells (bacteria). I understand the whole process and how this is done and how to identify which bacteria have taken the vector and the rest.

Now what I dont understand is how the gene is added from the bacteria (host cell) to the the plant once they have been cloned, can anyone explain please? Eg, say the gene for resistant to herbicides is isolated and added to vector then into bacteria, bacteria are identified and grown. Then what happens?

Also, can the host cell be anything or does it have to be bacteria?
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Dynamo123
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Firstly, the host cell can be a bacterium, a virus (typically a lambda phage) etc.
Secondly, the gene that is inserted in bacterial plasmid also increases in number as bacterial cells divide. Now conditions can be made ambient for the gene to express itself and make a protein product. Or the plasmid may be spliced up, and the gene identified by a probe and then isolated.
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Beven
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If it's plants, the bacteria they use is Agrobacterium. The leaf discs of that plant are placed in a Petri dish which contains the bacteria. Some of these leaf discs will take up these plasmids and these will be separated and cultivated using the micro propagation technique... I hope this helps...
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Ashnard
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Not sure how much you need to know but as Bevan said for plants they will use a bacterium of the genus Agrobacterium. In nature, Agrobacterium infects plants and during this process integrates a fragment of DNA from the Ti plasmid (tumour-inducing plasmid) into the plant genome. The integration of Agrobacterium Ti plasmid DNA into the plant genome results in crown gall disease in plants. In genetic engineering, this natural process is manipulated so that a DNA construct of interest is integrated into the plant genome without inducing tumour formation.

Edit: As Dynamo said, for the transformation of plants Agrobacterium is mainly used but for mammalian systems it is usually viral vectors.
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