miamoore4
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#1
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Hi everyone, struggling with my gcse biology research homework. I've found lots of information on websites and books but I don't really understand it because it is too high a level. If anyone could give me any simple, but detailed explanations to the following areas that would be greatly appreciated...
  1. how muscles get the energy they need to work
  2. what is muscle fatigue and what causes it
  3. the processes that allow a muscle to recover after exercisr
  4. the effects on athletes of spending time at high altitudes

Thank you :confused:
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Hype en Ecosse
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1. Muscles use ATP to work! They get this energy in the exact same way that the rest of our body does: through cellular respiration. Your body takes an energy source, like glucose, metabolises it (getting ATP out from it), and then uses oxygen to finish off the process by turning the by-product into water! There's a dead simple equation for this:

C_6 H_{12}O_6 (glucose) + 6O_2 \rightarrow 38ATP + 6CO_2 + 6H_2O

Your muscles can get glucose for this reaction from loads of places! Mostly, it's from the food that we eat and we just absorb it into our bloodstream and our muscles use that. But your muscles also store up glucose in the form of glycogen, so when they need to do really heavy work, they can access the stored glycogen as a quick energy source.

2. Muscle fatigue can happen for lots of reason! Sometimes it's just because they run out of energy (so they can't make enough ATP to work any more), or because waste products can build up in your muscles and get in the way, and stop them from doing their job!

3. Your muscles recover by building back up their energy sources, getting rid of waste products, and by physically repairing themselves. Strenuous exercise, like in weightlifting, causes your muscles to tear from the intense effort, so resources have to be expended to repair them!

4. Afraid I don't really know this one, sorry!

Hope that was helpful.
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miamoore4
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Yes that was really helpful...thank you very much!!!
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Revenged
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at altitude there is less oxygen in the air and the body reacts to this by the kidneys produces a hormone called erythropoietin. this hormone increases the amount of red blood cells in the body and this increases the oxygen carrying ability in the body. that is needed at altitude but athletes use it to their advantage. 'EPO' injections are commonly abused in sports - especially cycling and track and field. i know now that athletes are sleeping in low oxygen tents to artificially increase their natural EPO levels, which is allowed. HTH
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miamoore4
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thank you so much!!!
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thelad21
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Can I just say that is not your homework but it might be the Biology controlled assessment task for 2013
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Lilly_98
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I have got the same course work thank you for the help your a life saver
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TheNacho63
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There are question marks on whether altitude training really does work, Lance Armstrong however has proven the injections do work
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Kvothe the Arcane
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(Original post by TheNacho63)
There are question marks on whether altitude training really does work, Lance Armstrong however has proven the injections do work
Interesting. I attended a lecture at Cambridge where the consensus that altitude training doesn't work.
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TheNacho63
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I can't say I've gone into the study to much, I know that your body reverses back to original state very quickly and maybe the extra EPO released just isn't enough for a notable performance increase, but what do I know
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danheath
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what website did you optain this information from?
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