Hi in my breaks, im gonna post these notes im doing on Russia. Theyre quite condensed, and im gonna go over them all in bed. Hope they help.
The War and the Tsar
• At first the war created support for the Tsar, as they were united in the face of a common enemy. St Petersburg was patriotically named Petrograd.
• The enthusiasm died down as by 1915, one million had been killed, wounded or captured.
• War affected those at home too. Conscription took millions of men off the land causing food shortages. The railways were used to support the war, meaning that less food got to the cities. Factories were forced to close due to a lack of materials. Unemployment followed, along with fuel shortages as the factories were closing. Inflation meant workers had to work longer. Poverty ensued.
• September 1915 the Tsar took over the army leaving Tsarina Alexandra in control. This was a bad move – he was blamed for defeats. Also, the Tsarina was a poor ruler. She was disliked and thought to be a German spy, and her involvement with Rasputin offended all the classes. She replaced the competent members of the Duma with friends of Rasputin. She neglected the country, and the railways, and food shortages rose. Many railcars full of food rotted due to her poor organisation. Winter 1916 very bad – no food or fuel. High prices
• March 1917, reform was wanted. 40,000 workers from the Putilov engineering works revolted in Petrograd. This was joined by many thousands more. Like 1905, the Tsar sent troops to remove the riots. On the 12th March troops refused to fire, and many joined the strike. The Tsar was forced to abdicate, and the people refused the replacement of him with his brother – they had had enough of autocracy.
• On the pivotal 12th March, the crowds marched upon the Tauride palace, demanding the Duma take over. Many duma members left, scared of death for treason. The others decided to form a Provisional government to rule until elections could be held.
• In the same building on the same day, soldiers and workers set up the Petrograd Soviet to protect their interests. Many more were set up, but this was the most widely respected and most powerful. It issued order number one giving it control of the army.
• Dual power reigned, and the Soviet had the real power. Freedom was given to all, and the death penalty scrapped.
• The Provisional Government decided to continue the War, as they knew that they would lose a lot of land and money to the Germans. Peasants wanted more land, but the Provisional government wanted to wait until an elected government was in place. The PG was undermined, and the peasants took land anyway.
IF THIS IS NOT HELPFUL TELL ME TO SHUT UP, AND ILL STOP POSTING.
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My history notes on Russia watch
- Thread Starter
- 14-06-2006 18:24
- 14-06-2006 18:47
Great stuff! Post the rest if you get a chance
- 14-06-2006 18:51
Thankyou! They are really helpful