Just making this thread so i can share essay plans/ titles with anyone else sitting this exam in the summer. Feel free to post any questions you get set by your teachers or any essay plans you make.
I'm resitting this in summer (did it last year and only got a C).
It's hard to pick up marks in this exam, you really have to explain everything and justify everything you say to pick up the evaluation marks.
I do British History along side American and to get a C in American you needed the same percentage as an A in British.... so focus your revision on evaluative points!
How far was USA isolationist from 1920-1930?
- Public grow weary of interventionism and close ties to Europe and other nations after WW1. Elect Harding because he promises ‘return to normalcy’ and doesn’t support League of Nations or Treaty of Versailles.
- Entanglements made this hard to achieve, world’s largest exporter and creditor by the end of WW1 meant that America’s future was still strongly linked to the rest of the world.
- Didn’t join League of Nations or the International Court of Justice or ratify Treaty of Versailles.
- High protective tariff. Fordney- McCumber tariff 1922. Tax on foreign goods of 38% to discourage buying from foreign countries. Tariff rates increased again under Coolidge. Isolates America politically and economically, starts trade war with European countries as they raise tariffs on American goods.
- Immigration quota act 1921, National origins act 1924, updated origins act 1929 & literacy tests. Favours white English speaking immigrants. Less foreign influence on society. 1925-1927 85% of all immigrants were from north/west Europe and Scandinavia.
- Under Harding there was a normalisation of relations with Latin American countries. Officially recognised the government of Mexico and used diplomacy to avert open warfare, and compromised over Mexican debt owed to US banks. USA also gave a 25 million pound concession to Columbia to make amends for America’s role in the panama rebellion of 1903. There was much less military intervention in Latin America. These policies in Latin America carried on by Coolidge.
Even though America was involved in the 4 power treaty Harding ensured the senate that there was “no alliance or written or moral obligation to join in defence”. Even after the Kellogg Briand pact the US still emphasises it’s right to enforce the Monroe doctrine.
- Pushed strongly for disarmament. Washington disarmament conference of 1921. Agreements signed between, Japan, UK, France, Italy for naval armaments reduction in East Asia in order to maintain the balance of power in the pacific. Signing of the 4 power treaty by UK, Japan, France and USA – all agreed to respect each other’s interests in the region & confer with each other if any country in the region became aggressive. America needed to protect colonies in Philippines. Geneva Naval conference of 1927 called on countries to limit their navy even further, this was largely a failure but still an example of internationalism.
-Restructuring of German debts through the Dawes plan 1924- provides Germany with foreign loans to pay its international debts. The young plan extended the time Germans had to repay debts.
- Kellogg Briand pact (1928) and other peace conferences take place throughout the 1920’s. USA signed pact renouncing war as a means of settling international grievances. Little substance or sanctions attached to this.
- Open door policy – still using international diplomacy for trade purposes and for benefit of USA.
- Occupation of Nicaragua until the 1933 and intervention in their civil war in 1926 to stop the killing, America then organised a coalition government. USA still had strong influence in Latin American countries where it did not intervene directly. America used ‘sweetheart treaties’ to ensure that America would have a say in running the economic affairs of countries such as Haiti. Coolidge and Hoover both arm and train indigenous security forces sympathetic to the USA ensuring influence.
You might not need all of this info for this question but there you go.
Anyone know what the questions were for the USA 1890-1945 were ? (Aqa AS level)
Retaking this exam in may. Got a C first time.
All the above plans and suggestions are missing quotes from historians and evaluative points concerning wider context of time periods relative to the question, unfortunately this serves to explain why people aren't getting the A grades they want
sorry the parrish quote wasnt included. i dont think that harding quote will be put in the paper theres barely any detail about that in the 2 main textbooks
Any predictions for 2015 questions ?