AQA AS level students: PSYA2 revision notes Watch

BRQ
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Hi all,
Well I completed my AS psychology qualification and achieved an A grade overall, with a grade A in PSYA2 and B in PSYA1 respectively. During my revision, I created a set of concise notes for PSYA2, these cover social, abnormality and stress. I spent a lot of time and effort in to making them as concise as possible and easy to understand at the same time, summarising helped me achieve the grades I wanted. Since starting A2 level I realised how simple AS actually is and thought my notes might come in handy for some of you when revising for mocks or the real exam in June, so here you go X

N.B. I do not have any notes for PSYA1, please don't reproduce my notes as your own because I put in a lot of effort in to making them!

UPDATE 17/4/15 - Uploaded a PDF format of the notes again for those who had difficulty opening the word files, hope this helps!
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MollyMcFly1
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(Original post by BRQ)
Hi all,
Well I completed my AS psychology qualification and achieved an A grade overall, with a grade A in PSYA2 and B in PSYA1 respectively. During my revision, I created a set of concise notes for PSYA2, these cover social, abnormality and stress. I spent a lot of time and effort in to making them as concise as possible and easy to understand at the same time, summarising helped me achieve the grades I wanted. Since starting A2 level I realised how simple AS actually is and thought my notes might come in handy for some of you when revising for mocks or the real exam in June, so here you go X

N.B. I do not have any notes for PSYA1, please don't reproduce my notes as your own because I put in a lot of effort in to making them!
Thank you for these!! Really helpful
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Hann1551
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HII!
These notes are AWESOME!! Thank you!!
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Prina_R
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(Original post by BRQ)
Hi all,
Well I completed my AS psychology qualification and achieved an A grade overall, with a grade A in PSYA2 and B in PSYA1 respectively. During my revision, I created a set of concise notes for PSYA2, these cover social, abnormality and stress. I spent a lot of time and effort in to making them as concise as possible and easy to understand at the same time, summarising helped me achieve the grades I wanted. Since starting A2 level I realised how simple AS actually is and thought my notes might come in handy for some of you when revising for mocks or the real exam in June, so here you go X

N.B. I do not have any notes for PSYA1, please don't reproduce my notes as your own because I put in a lot of effort in to making them!
I there! I could not download the notes so could you email them to me? Please it would be really helpful


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sandykaur
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Does anyone know how to get 12 marks on this question please
"discuss research studies which have investigated the way in which personality factors influence how people respond to stress" 12 marks.

How would I structure, for each A01 and AO2 what would I put??
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sophiegashman
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(Original post by sandykaur)
Does anyone know how to get 12 marks on this question please
"discuss research studies which have investigated the way in which personality factors influence how people respond to stress" 12 marks.

How would I structure, for each A01 and AO2 what would I put??
Hi just came across this post! I took this exam last year and had this question. I got 98 UMS in both papers and this is pretty much exactly what I wrote in the exam (this model answer is from my revision notes last year) so it should be a solid 11/12 at least. Hope it helps:
Friedman and Rosenman identified what they called Type A personality - this refers to a behavioural style which is characterised by high levels of competitiveness, time urgency and anger. These characteristics, they believed, would lead to raised blood pressure and the risk of CHD. In contrast, Type B personality types are generally patient, relaxed and easy going, characteristics that are believed to decrease an individuals risk of stress-related illness. To investigate the link between type A behaviour and CHD they examined 3000 men between the ages of 39 and 59 to discover whether any already had signs of CHD and interviewed the men to see how they responded to everyday stressors. The interviews were carried out in a provocative manner so they could see if the men responded impatiently, a manner associate by Type A behaviour. They found that after 8 and half years, twice as many people with Type A behaviour died from cardiovascular problems compared to men with Type B. Of those with Type A behaviour, 12.8% had experienced heart attacks compared to a much lower figure of 6% of men with Type B behaviour.
The claim that Type A behaviour makes individuals more vulnerable to CHD is challenged as a result of research by Myrtek. Myrtek carried outa meta-analysis of 35 studies on the relationship between Type A behaviour and CHD and only found a relationship between CHD and hostility, just one component of Type A behaviour. Other than this there was no evidence of a link between Type A behaviour and the risk of CHD. Another research study that doesn’t support the link between type A and CHD is by Ragland and Brand. They carried out a follow up study of the men used in Friedman and Rosenman’s study and found that 22 years after the beginning of the study, about 15% of the men had died from CHD, however, there was little evidence of a difference between the Type A and Type B men in percentages of those who had died from CHD.
Whereas people with Type A personality are likely to suffer more from stress relating illness, hardiness is thought to be a ‘protective’ factor, meaning that those with hardy personalities may be less likely to suffer from stress related conditions. Kobasa and Maddi proposed it was made up of 3 characteristics: Control - they see themselves as being in control of their lives rather than being controlled by external factors, challenge - they see stressful situations as opportunities for development rather than stressor, and commitment - they have a strong sense of purpose and do not give up easily. Maddi et al found in a study of employees facing the stress of redundancy, that 2/3rds of the employees suffered stress-related health problems during this period, but the remaining third thrived. The ‘thriving’ group showed more evidence of the three attributes of the hardy personality.
A weakness of the hardy personality is that critics argue the characteristics can be better explained by negative affectivity. Watson and Clarke suggest that people who are high in NA are more likely to dwell on negative aspects of themselves. As NA has a strong negative correlation with hardiness, it is possible that hardy individuals are simply those who are low in NA. A strength of this is that there are real world applications. For example, the concept of hardiness has been used to explain why some soldiers remain healthy under war-related stress while others suffer. Bartone found during the Gulf War, the higher an individual’s hardiness level, the less likely they were to experience PTSD or depression in combat. This has led to the development of hardiness screening programmes for applicants for military units in the US.
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sandykaur
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(Original post by sophiegashman)
Hi just came across this post! I took this exam last year and had this question. I got 98 UMS in both papers and this is pretty much exactly what I wrote in the exam (this model answer is from my revision notes last year) so it should be a solid 11/12 at least. Hope it helps:
Friedman and Rosenman identified what they called Type A personality - this refers to a behavioural style which is characterised by high levels of competitiveness, time urgency and anger. These characteristics, they believed, would lead to raised blood pressure and the risk of CHD. In contrast, Type B personality types are generally patient, relaxed and easy going, characteristics that are believed to decrease an individuals risk of stress-related illness. To investigate the link between type A behaviour and CHD they examined 3000 men between the ages of 39 and 59 to discover whether any already had signs of CHD and interviewed the men to see how they responded to everyday stressors. The interviews were carried out in a provocative manner so they could see if the men responded impatiently, a manner associate by Type A behaviour. They found that after 8 and half years, twice as many people with Type A behaviour died from cardiovascular problems compared to men with Type B. Of those with Type A behaviour, 12.8% had experienced heart attacks compared to a much lower figure of 6% of men with Type B behaviour.
The claim that Type A behaviour makes individuals more vulnerable to CHD is challenged as a result of research by Myrtek. Myrtek carried outa meta-analysis of 35 studies on the relationship between Type A behaviour and CHD and only found a relationship between CHD and hostility, just one component of Type A behaviour. Other than this there was no evidence of a link between Type A behaviour and the risk of CHD. Another research study that doesn’t support the link between type A and CHD is by Ragland and Brand. They carried out a follow up study of the men used in Friedman and Rosenman’s study and found that 22 years after the beginning of the study, about 15% of the men had died from CHD, however, there was little evidence of a difference between the Type A and Type B men in percentages of those who had died from CHD.
Whereas people with Type A personality are likely to suffer more from stress relating illness, hardiness is thought to be a ‘protective’ factor, meaning that those with hardy personalities may be less likely to suffer from stress related conditions. Kobasa and Maddi proposed it was made up of 3 characteristics: Control - they see themselves as being in control of their lives rather than being controlled by external factors, challenge - they see stressful situations as opportunities for development rather than stressor, and commitment - they have a strong sense of purpose and do not give up easily. Maddi et al found in a study of employees facing the stress of redundancy, that 2/3rds of the employees suffered stress-related health problems during this period, but the remaining third thrived. The ‘thriving’ group showed more evidence of the three attributes of the hardy personality.
A weakness of the hardy personality is that critics argue the characteristics can be better explained by negative affectivity. Watson and Clarke suggest that people who are high in NA are more likely to dwell on negative aspects of themselves. As NA has a strong negative correlation with hardiness, it is possible that hardy individuals are simply those who are low in NA. A strength of this is that there are real world applications. For example, the concept of hardiness has been used to explain why some soldiers remain healthy under war-related stress while others suffer. Bartone found during the Gulf War, the higher an individual’s hardiness level, the less likely they were to experience PTSD or depression in combat. This has led to the development of hardiness screening programmes for applicants for military units in the US.
Thank you so much!!! I did an answer based on Friedman and Kobasa and got 11/12!
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WaywardWriter
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Omg thank you so much! Amazing notes!

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sophiegashman
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(Original post by sandykaur)
Thank you so much!!! I did an answer based on Friedman and Kobasa and got 11/12!

glad to be of any help If you need any other tips on the AS exam feel free to PM me
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stevenlawson6
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Hi

This doesn't cover every topic! Is there a reason for this?
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rebeccar16
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(Original post by BRQ)
Hi all,
Well I completed my AS psychology qualification and achieved an A grade overall, with a grade A in PSYA2 and B in PSYA1 respectively. During my revision, I created a set of concise notes for PSYA2, these cover social, abnormality and stress. I spent a lot of time and effort in to making them as concise as possible and easy to understand at the same time, summarising helped me achieve the grades I wanted. Since starting A2 level I realised how simple AS actually is and thought my notes might come in handy for some of you when revising for mocks or the real exam in June, so here you go X

N.B. I do not have any notes for PSYA1, please don't reproduce my notes as your own because I put in a lot of effort in to making them!
This is great! Thanks. I'm finding Unit 2 much harder..Especially Stress. We haven't even started Abnormality in class yet which is worrying:/
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zanab_98
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These notes are really helpful to go over before the actual exam so thank you!
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Rorschach II
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I don't even do psychology xD

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