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    Hello, my book says that all acids above H3O+ completely ionize with water so we use "--->" .
    The acids under H3O+ and above H2O are in equilibrium with water so we use " <--->".
    The acids under H2O are so weak they dont even react with water so we dont use anything.

    Now there are some exceptions! For example Na+, LI+, Ba2+, Ca2+, .... are above H2O but they dont use <---> for whatever reason.
    My book says that the metal ions of the IA & IIA groups are exceptions, so even though they are above H2O they still arent in equilibrium with water "<--->". They simply dont react with water.
    Now my question is for SO42-, this is a base, but it follows the same analogy as acids do. SO42- is under H2O & above OH-, so it should be in equilibrium with water right? So we officialy denote that with "<---->" right?

    Thanks in advance!!
    • Study Helper

    Study Helper
    This is quite handwavy, but I assume it is because you are not yet taught quantitative description of the acid base equilibrium.

    SO42- definitely gets protonated (either by reacting directly with H+ or by reacting with water), but amount of HSO4- depends on pH. 0.0067M solution of sulfuric acid has pH=2.00 and exactly half SO42- is protonated to HSO4- (so their concentrations are identical).
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