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Breakdown of Protein to form Hormones? watch

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    We've got two questions to answer for our Biology homework-

    a) In relation to hormones, why is it important that proteins are broken down?

    Proteolysis is important as the broken down proteins give essential amino acids that can be used to form thousands of hormones. I'm guessing here since I couldn't find an actual reason anywhere really.

    b) Give an example.

    I genuinely have no idea, I can't find an example on the internet, if somebody could give me a vague answer then I'm sure that I could research it and find another one that I could use, but for now I just can't seem to find one.
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    (Original post by Eskyy)
    We've got two questions to answer for our Biology homework-

    a) In relation to hormones, why is it important that proteins are broken down?

    Proteolysis is important as the broken down proteins give essential amino acids that can be used to form thousands of hormones. I'm guessing here since I couldn't find an actual reason anywhere really.

    b) Give an example.

    I genuinely have no idea, I can't find an example on the internet, if somebody could give me a vague answer then I'm sure that I could research it and find another one that I could use, but for now I just can't seem to find one.
    It's a good attempt, but not quite the answer they're looking for. When it says "in relation to hormones", you have to think about their function. Hormones act as a signalling molecule for communication between cells. They need to be inactivated otherwise they'll keep stimulating the target cell.

    As an example, you could look up any hormone and say a brief line about it's metabolism.
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    (Original post by Eskyy)
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    If I were you I would explain the different functions of the proteins first before I give an answer. Proteins have so many different functions. Antibodies support the immune system, the enzymes are responsible for different metabolisms, collagen forms the connective tissues (for teeth, bones, cartilages etc.) to name but a few.

    But what has that to do with the break down of proteins? proteins can be transformed into new proteins by breaking down their sequences of amino acids in protein catabolism. According to which sequences of amino acids are formed after break down, the new proteins have different functions. The protein breakdown helps the organisms to get the protein which is needed and is stimulated by catabolic hormones.
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    If I were you I would explain the different functions of the proteins first before I give an answer. Proteins have so many different functions. Antibodies support the immune system, the enzymes are responsible for different metabolisms, collagen forms the connective tissues (for teeth, bones, cartilages etc.) to name but a few.

    But what has that to do with the break down of proteins? proteins can be transformed into new proteins by breaking down their sequences of amino acids in protein catabolism. According to which sequences of amino acids are formed after break down, the new proteins have different functions. The protein breakdown helps the organisms to get the protein which is needed and is stimulated by catabolic hormones.
    You're somewhat correct, breaking down proteins is a good renewal way to generate new proteins. The question however says in relation to hormones, meaning you shouldn't talk about other proteins. It would be very hard to give an example in your case. Generally if cells need amino acids then the food we consume provides this, instead of having to look at currently functioning proteins in the body to breakdown and re-use.
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    (Original post by Eloades11)
    You're somewhat correct, breaking down proteins is a good renewal way to generate new proteins. The question however says in relation to hormones, meaning you shouldn't talk about other proteins. It would be very hard to give an example in your case. Generally if cells need amino acids then the food we consume provides this, instead of having to look at currently functioning proteins in the body to breakdown and re-use.
    I have just thought about the function and the utility of protein break down. I thought I get an answer in this way to explain the importance of break down. If I do have this right certain hormones - catabolic hormones as written above by myself - controlled this protein break down, so the hormones are responsible for creating new proteins by regulating.
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    (Original post by Eloades11)
    It's a good attempt, but not quite the answer they're looking for. When it says "in relation to hormones", you have to think about their function. Hormones act as a signalling molecule for communication between cells. They need to be inactivated otherwise they'll keep stimulating the target cell.

    As an example, you could look up any hormone and say a brief line about it's metabolism.
    I thought it was enzymes that were needed to be released as zymogens (inactive enzyme precursors), to prevent digestion of the secretory tissue? For example, trypsinogen, produced and secreted by the pancreas and is activated by enterokinase to form the active enzyme, trypsin.

    I understand that and I've wrote a page and a half of explanation into the hows and whys, but that's with an enzyme. I wasn't sure if Hormones had a similar process, but the main differences between the two seem more about their function rather than their structures?

    Is there a word for the an inactive form of a hormone? And if so, how is it activated?
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    If I were you I would explain the different functions of the proteins first before I give an answer. Proteins have so many different functions. Antibodies support the immune system, the enzymes are responsible for different metabolisms, collagen forms the connective tissues (for teeth, bones, cartilages etc.) to name but a few.

    But what has that to do with the break down of proteins? proteins can be transformed into new proteins by breaking down their sequences of amino acids in protein catabolism. According to which sequences of amino acids are formed after break down, the new proteins have different functions. The protein breakdown helps the organisms to get the protein which is needed and is stimulated by catabolic hormones.
    Now that I've slept on it I'm going to re-write my answers completely, but I think providing general functions of proteins is a good way to get it going, then I'll finish with hormonal proteins and then launch into an example? I think that if I research the examples completely, I'll find some key words that I can use to search for a specific example for proteins breaking down and reforming to form a hormone; I just can't see how I can find an example on the internet, and I don't really have access to a library that might have this information.
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    (Original post by Eskyy)
    Now that I've slept on it I'm going to re-write my answers completely, but I think providing general functions of proteins is a good way to get it going, then I'll finish with hormonal proteins and then launch into an example? I think that if I research the examples completely, I'll find some key words that I can use to search for a specific example for proteins breaking down and reforming to form a hormone; I just can't see how I can find an example on the internet, and I don't really have access to a library that might have this information.
    The importance of protein break down by hormonal regulating is to reneval protein and maybe to give them a new function. To name examples you can name some proteins and their functions.
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    (Original post by Eloades11)
    It's a good attempt, but not quite the answer they're looking for. When it says "in relation to hormones", you have to think about their function. Hormones act as a signalling molecule for communication between cells. They need to be inactivated otherwise they'll keep stimulating the target cell.

    As an example, you could look up any hormone and say a brief line about it's metabolism.
    Could I use the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormone as an example? I'm looking at hormones, hormone structure and how they break down and I'm just not coming up with much; in all the available textbooks I've got, and the internet.
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    The importance of protein break down by hormonal regulating is to reneval protein and maybe to give them a new function. To name examples you can name some proteins and their functions.
    So the body breaks down proteins, in order to re-combine them and possibly form new proteins with different structures and different functions, as a result?
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    (Original post by Eskyy)
    So the body breaks down proteins, in order to re-combine them and possibly form new proteins with different structures and different functions, as a result?
    The procedure of protein catabolism causes the break down of protein into amino acids. If I do have this right, yes the proteins must be re-combined to new proteins.

    Here is a link to an Wikipedia article about protein catabolism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_catabolism

    As far as I understand hormones are controlling this procedure.

    Here is my source, scroll down: http://osp.mans.edu.eg/medbiochem_mi...Lecture_04.htm
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    The procedure of protein catabolism causes the break down of protein into amino acids. They turn into new sequences by RNA and then they will transport by t-RNA to the ribosomes to form new proteins. So, yes the proteins must be re-combined to new proteins.

    Here is a link to an Wikipedia article about protein catabolism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_catabolism

    As far as I understand hormones are controlling this procedure.

    Here is my source, scroll down: http://osp.mans.edu.eg/medbiochem_mi...Lecture_04.htm
    that's brilliant, thank you! So I've got a solid answer for part a), now all I need is an example. Could I use hormones that stimulate protein breakdown (catabolic hormones), which is at the bottom of those lecture notes? Then I can use other resources to get more specific information into that example, so I could use Glucocorticoids and then find an example of a protein that will be broken down? Then try and find the hows and whys of the process.

    Edit: I've changed that to Glycogen since I already have knowledge on what it's function is, and I've found an example of how it's activated by a derrivative of Vitamin B6 which is obtained from diet and that could be an example of how ingested nutrients can be broken down into products that aid in the secretion of hormones and the activation of said hormone.

    Source- http://www.rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbioc...2/glycogen.htm
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    (Original post by Kallisto)
    The procedure of protein catabolism causes the break down of protein into amino acids. They turn into new sequences by RNA and then they will transport by t-RNA to the ribosomes to form new proteins. So, yes the proteins must be re-combined to new proteins.

    Here is a link to an Wikipedia article about protein catabolism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_catabolism
    I'm unsure about what you're saying here. I don't know any cases where common fully functional proteins are broken down to amino acids just to be converted to other proteins. As it said in your wiki article, it's mainly the process of digestion, so eating food for a source of amino acids. Another source of amino acids would be the Kreb's cycle, which regulates a cycle of different compounds readily generating the desired amino acid.

    Breaking down fully functional proteins is not an efficient source of generating amino acids. The main way is intake of food. Regular proteins are renewed in the cell, think of it as an expiry date, and thus are targeted for degredation by the proteasome. This can generate amino acids, but it is not an effective source for amino acids.

    Going back to hormones, as far as I know, there are a few stimulatory effects that they do. They regulate gene expression (using transcription factors) in target cells, stimulate changes in second messenger levels, and regulate ion concentrations. I wouldn't say one of the main functions would be to degrade fully functional proteins inside the cell, unless they want them to shut off. Certainly not for a source of amino acids/energy.
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    (Original post by Eloades11)
    I'm unsure about what you're saying here. I don't know any cases where common fully functional proteins are broken down to amino acids just to be converted to other proteins. As it said in your wiki article, it's mainly the process of digestion, so eating food for a source of amino acids. Another source of amino acids would be the Kreb's cycle, which regulates a cycle of different compounds readily generating the desired amino acid.

    Breaking down fully functional proteins is not an efficient source of generating amino acids. The main way is intake of food. Regular proteins are renewed in the cell, think of it as an expiry date, and thus are targeted for degredation by the proteasome. This can generate amino acids, but it is not an effective source for amino acids.

    Going back to hormones, as far as I know, there are a few stimulatory effects that they do. They regulate gene expression (using transcription factors) in target cells, stimulate changes in second messenger levels, and regulate ion concentrations. I wouldn't say one of the main functions would be to degrade fully functional proteins inside the cell, unless they want them to shut off. Certainly not for a source of amino acids/energy.
    I'd agree with Eloades, seeing that the main source of AA in the body is food, and not protein catabolism. I think protein catabolism would give us AA to reform into proteins, but that wouldn't have much more effectivity in normal conditions, although it might be useful in fasting conditions, when the body's external supply of AA has finished up.
 
 
 
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