how do you increase your memory?Watch
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i am sorry but i dont understand what you mean by memorize the facts? i do psychology btw, there's just so much information if i keep reading it over and over will i remember, because i just feel as if reading it over an over wont work
I want to know about this too. It's so frustrating when you invest the time and effort to learn a new concept and you finally think you've got it, then when you come back to it a month or so later you find you don't get it again.
Test yourself - and importantly, practice. Doing past papers will definitely help ingrain the facts into your head
Evolutionary explanations of Anorexia Nervosa include adapted to flee famine hypothesis (AFFH) and the reproduction suppression hypothesis (RSH). According to the AFFH proposed by Guisinger, the symptoms of AN such as dissatisfaction with weight and distorted view of body image would have been adaptive as a response to weight loss in our EEA as it would have enabled our ancestors to move away from famine and re-establish themselves in more fertile areas. According to the Reproduction suppression hypothesis proposed by Surbey, AN would have been adaptive as a response to weight loss as a way of conserving resources. As parental investment is so high in females, it would be adaptive for females to be able to delay reproduction when conditions were not conductive to offspring survival. The symptom of AN, particularly amenorrhoea would prevent pregnancy.
There is some research to support the RSH. For example, Juda et al found that women who perceive low levels of social support from their romantic partners and family reported increasing dieting symptomology and low perception of parental readiness. Also Voland and Voland found that many species are able to postpone their fertility as a response to poor environmental conditions.
The symptoms of amenorrhoea does support the RSH and it is also better able to account than AFFH for the much higher rate of AN in women, but unable to take into account for male cases. A critique regarding the reproductive suppression hypothesis is that it does not explain the function of distorted body image and hyperactivity of the anorexics (Guisinger) and does not give answer to the questions such as why poor reproduction success is more likely to happen to wealthy and well fed females and why sometimes men and postmenopausal women may be anorectic.
There is much evidence supporting the AFFH. For example, many species refuse food in those circumstances when feeding competes with other activities such as migrating or breeding. Also, Mrosovsky found food restriction behaviour across species when animals must migrate. This supports the AFFH hypothesis. But, this is more complex in humans. Furthermore 8 genes have been identified in AN individual that decrease appetite and increase activity that is triggered by falling weight by Guisinger.
More research to support for the AFFH comes from Epling et al. Epling et al found that mammal species develop AN like symptoms in which they ignore their food and exercise excessively and if feeding time is restricted and they have access to a running wheel, rats and other rodents species will self-starve in the presence of food.
Guisinger argues that implications of evolutionary explanation for treatment that are less ethically questionable than those that suggest that family factors may be responsible. Suggests that if Anorexics are enabled to gain weight above a set point the genetic programming that triggers AN would be switched off.
Whilst genetic vulnerability may have evolved there is however considerable evidence to suggests other approaches play a significant role of aetiology of AN. For example, Bruch proposed a psychodynamic explanation that parents who are insensitive to their child’s needs will often respond to their signals inappropriately. If parents are too quick to interpret and to control their child they can lack an ability to feel in control of their own actions and the outcome is a lack of autonomy and this can result in the individual exerting control via restricting their eating.
Evolutionary explanations are based on assumptions made about experiences in our EEA (Environment of evolutionary adaptation) – it is clear that these can only be assumptions and cannot be supported empirically, they are non-falsifiable and therefore it can be argued they lack scientific rigour.