English language - language acquisition and language change help Watch

curiousroses
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hey guys i need help with language acquisition , u guys got any notes or sample answers
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Iloveladygagaxo
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What sort of things do you need help on? Anything specific? xx
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curiousroses
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sample answers or notes could do the trick , help with the theorists and how to structure your essay xxx
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curiousroses
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sorry for the late reply haven't been on this xxx
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Revisiontimecats
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(Original post by curiousroses)
sample answers or notes could do the trick , help with the theorists and how to structure your essay xxx
Theorists for your A02
For language Aquisition

Noam Chomsky , Nativist theory, he argues language is innate since birth , we learn the language of our culture by our experience .

Bf skinner , behaviourist theory , he argues language is learnt through our imitation and positive and negative reinforcement . Positive reinforcement meaning rewarding the good and correct language in use or act , and it encourages the child to do it again. Negative reinforcement, punishing a child which is less likely that they will learn

Barch and Sach Jim case study of the dead parents , Jim would spend his time watching TV and listening to the radio, he could pick up sign language by his parents but couldn't speak so he went to a speach therapist and learnt how to speak.

The wild child documentary of feral children - Genie famous case study ,
Shoes how the father abandoned her at a very young age and did not give her TV or games or toys no input from caregiver so NATURE VS NURTURE
She didn't learn to speak because she missed the 'critical periods' which is the certain age we are able to learn language she was 13 and after this age you cannot acquire language .


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Revisiontimecats
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Deaf not dead lol


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(Original post by curiousroses)
sample answers or notes could do the trick , help with the theorists and how to structure your essay xxx
REMEMBER YOU CAN ADD LANGUAGE AND GENDER THEORISTS FROM
AS LANGUAGE STUDY ESPECIALLY GENDER

Robin Lakoff ( language and gender female speach )
* tag questions ( do you want juice ?) it's a yes or no answer and invites the initiation , response and feedback , it also starts the conversation.

* the use of empty adjectives ( adorable lovely cute beautiful)

* over extensted qualifiers ( I think that)

* HEDGING ( sort of seems like)

* modal constructions ( would could can should ) ( pre modifier verbs)
* intensifiers ' really' 'very' 'too'

The dominance theory of Zimmeran and west , in mixed gender convos, men appear to interrupt more and seek prestige by dominating the other gender

DEBORAH TANNEN
INFORMATION VS FEELINGS
Women = use emotivist language , seek to form bonds and support politeness strategies )
MEN+ direct assertive imperatives - you
, seek to dominate and control , compete gain status prestige verbs


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Revisiontimecats
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The ACCOMMODATION THEORY
WE change our language depending on whom we speak to and ' overt and covert prestige'
Language divergence and convergence

Example = if I spoke to a 3 year old, I would speak slowly and use easy language that the child can understand

Politeness strategies (
Please thank you)

Positive and negative lexis ( well done , good girl , that's right )



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curiousroses
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wow thanks man ! much appreciated... can u do the same for AS literature and specifically robert brownings poems?
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Everglow
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I find the language change stuff difficult - particularly with things like semantic change because I don't know how we can be expected to know archaic and modern meanings of all lexemes? For example, liquor used to just mean liquid but now only refers to alcohol. I had no idea of that archaic meaning. It's things like that which make this exam tough.
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Baron of Sealand
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This thread is awfully general.
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Everglow
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(Original post by clh_hilary)
This thread is awfully general.
Not really... it's to do with our A2 English Language exam.
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Revisiontimecats
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(Original post by Reluire)
I find the language change stuff difficult - particularly with things like semantic change because I don't know how we can be expected to know archaic and modern meanings of all lexemes? For example, liquor used to just mean liquid but now only refers to alcohol. I had no idea of that archaic meaning. It's things like that which make this exam tough.
You're not expected to know that kind of stuff lol you're expected to give reasons why language has changed and how.
They don't expect to you to know the
Whole history behind it.I'll help you out.


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(Original post by curiousroses)
wow thanks man ! much appreciated... can u do the same for AS literature and specifically robert brownings poems?
I don't do literature but I can still help you with poetry as I love my poems

Can you send me the Robert browning poem so I can read it and analyse it ?

The frameworks of English language remain the same for literature

( lexis / semantics)
PRAGMATICS
Graphology ( not really relevant lol)
Orthography ( spelling )
Phonology ( how words are pronounced)
Discourse structure ( stanzas )




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(Original post by Reluire)
I find the language change stuff difficult - particularly with things like semantic change because I don't know how we can be expected to know archaic and modern meanings of all lexemes? For example, liquor used to just mean liquid but now only refers to alcohol. I had no idea of that archaic meaning. It's things like that which make this exam tough.
Language change terminology that is going to help you answer the language change question

FIRST use the language frameworks to help you answer the question
Lexis semantics , graphology , grammar, discourse structure, PRAGMATICS, phonology

With this you can look at the two texts and decide which is used and which isn't and see why their important and how

2) now let's go to the terminology for A01 marks -

Neogalisation ( the process in which new words are formed)
Blends ( this is two different words that make one word for example 'Motor' , motor = hotel and motor
Or bunch = breakfast and lunch
Explain why - it's used because it's effected by migration because of different culture?

Compounding ( for those doing language Aquisiton it fits because it's used to teach children in English ) - in terms of language change it's an example of polysyllabic words which make words long , lengthy , complexed and sophisticated , mark of power authority and education and class ....( not always though )
For example ' broadband' ' physcholinguistics'

Proprietary nouns - names given by a product or company ( this reflects belonging and ownership)
For example, 'Apple' 'Nokia' ' new look'

EPONYMS ARE NAMED after a person such as 'Hoover' names after him, or
'Darwin's museum' ( named after Charles Darwin)

ABBREVIATION - ACRYNYM- initialism
' Ict' - information communication technology ' h&m = Hermes and ...'
These are used in travel writing or diaries In the public domain , as examples of compression features that is for efficacy and speed and 'false starts' ( depend on what text is)

Vowel deletion
(Wht) what
Tlk( talk)

ARCHAIC LEXIS IS USUALLY FROM LATIN AND RELIGOON as the church were the authorities of law and education , minority of people could speak Latin at the time , and the rich were speakers of Latin
It means how words are old fashioned
'Good morrow' nobody says this anymore

DHYCHRONIC CHANGE ( language changes over time )

SYNCHRONIC CHANGE; means "at the same time"; in linguistics it refers to the state of a language as it is at a particular time, so a synchronic study of language examines and describes a language as it is (at a particular point in its development), rather than its history.



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curiousroses
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what about the dates? william caxton printing press and samuel johnson dictionary???
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Revisiontimecats
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Language change A01 continued

- obsolete words are words which are dead and no longer in use for example 'callipygian'

- SEMANTIC CHANGE ( how words of meanings change due to sociolects and change in context and time period )

- semantic NARROWING ( Meat - The word mete (in Old English) or meat originally meant "food." In present day the word now means "food in the form)

- semantic WIDENING ( mouse , virus)
As mouse can be an animal or a mouse on the computer
A virus can be from a human or related to a computer

- PEJORATIVE OR PEJORATION
WORDS THAT ARE POSITIVE HAVE BECOME NEGATIVE 'gay' originally meant to be happy now is referred to orientation negatively

- AMEOLISATION WORDS THAT HAVE
BECOME NEGATIVE ARE NOW POSTIVE '"The meaning of nice when it first appeared in Middle English (about 1300) was '(of persons or their actions) foolish, silly, simple; ignorant, senseless, absurd.




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Revisiontimecats
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(Original post by curiousroses)
what about the dates? william caxton printing press and samuel johnson dictionary???
That's important only if you can explain why and how in the text itself they hate it when you throw in random stuff or random great vowel shift without explaining .

That will give you a02 marks
It really depends what the text is dated at to actually make this comment .

William Caxton printing press was the first English man to bring this from Germany and it was to standardise the English language and translate , 1746
Caxton affiliated himself with the household of Margaret, the duchess of Burgundy, sister of the English king Edward IV. She became one of his most important patrons and encouraged him with his translation of 'The Recuyell of the Histories of Troye' from French to English. In the early 1470s Caxton spent time in Cologne learning the art of printing. He returned to Bruges in 1472 where he and Colard Mansion, a Flemish calligrapher, set up a press. Caxton's own translation of 'The Recuyell of the Histories of Troye' was the first book printed in the English language.

In 1476 Caxton returned to London and established a press at Westminster, the first printing press in England. Amongst the books he printed were Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales', Gower's 'Confession Amantis' and Malory's 'Le Morte d'Arthur'. He printed more than 100 books in his lifetime, books which were known for their craftsmanship and careful editing. He was the translator of many of the books he published, using his knowledge of French, Latin and Dutch.


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curiousroses
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aah ok for lang acq does virtuous errors or over generalizations tie in with language being a innate process (LAD) ?
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curiousroses
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and what does suzainne romaine theory of internal and external factors mean? i have never really understood it
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