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    y= -I3xI --------> When you sketch this graph, it's reflected in the x-axis. Why? I thought if the whole equation had the modulus sign around it, then only could it be reflected in the x-axis. However, in this equation, the minus sign lies outside the modulus, so why is the graph reflected in the x-axis? Thanks

    The modulus does lead to the portion which would have been negative being reflected about the x-axis. However, once this process is done there is a minus sign that needs to be taken care of, so for every value for f(x) the value of the function is now negative. In short, the fact that the graph is flipped about the x axis is not due to the modulus but down to the minus sign outside.
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