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How can I write an A grade AQA Sociology Essay? watch

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    So I really want an A in sociology but really struggling with writing a good essay

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    i am also struggling with the essays! just never know what to write! :/
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    Real life statistics! A grade answers need to be applied to real life. I'm doing crime and deviance, so for example you would need to apply e.g. Left realist policies in todays government.

    There's a basic structure that you need as well. Knowledge and understanding and evaluation e.g. 'Assess the usefulness of left realists policies today'.
    Knowledge: Left realists argue that crime is caused by real factors- such as relative deprivation, marginalisation and subcultures.'
    Understanding- the key is to reinforce to the examiner what you're saying so- 'therefore, they argue that there are factors in society that lead them to crime'.
    Then you need to explain further, so more knowledge. 'Relative deprivation is being relatively poor in comparison to society around you.
    Put a statistic in: 2011 London Riots show how relative deprivation is in todays society, as people are being bombarded with media messages of consumerism, but they can't afford these things.' Go onto explain marginalisation, subcultures etc.
    Evaluation= how good of a theory is it? Is it useful? What would other theorists think? So, Right realists would criticise left realist policies for focusing too much on crime prevention and less with how to deal with the act, they would suggest zero tolerance policing and more focus on punishments etc etc.

    Hope this helped?
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    (Original post by weirdnessandcoffee)
    Real life statistics! A grade answers need to be applied to real life. I'm doing crime and deviance, so for example you would need to apply e.g. Left realist policies in todays government.

    There's a basic structure that you need as well. Knowledge and understanding and evaluation e.g. 'Assess the usefulness of left realists policies today'.
    Knowledge: Left realists argue that crime is caused by real factors- such as relative deprivation, marginalisation and subcultures.'
    Understanding- the key is to reinforce to the examiner what you're saying so- 'therefore, they argue that there are factors in society that lead them to crime'.
    Then you need to explain further, so more knowledge. 'Relative deprivation is being relatively poor in comparison to society around you.
    Put a statistic in: 2011 London Riots show how relative deprivation is in todays society, as people are being bombarded with media messages of consumerism, but they can't afford these things.' Go onto explain marginalisation, subcultures etc.
    Evaluation= how good of a theory is it? Is it useful? What would other theorists think? So, Right realists would criticise left realist policies for focusing too much on crime prevention and less with how to deal with the act, they would suggest zero tolerance policing and more focus on punishments etc etc.

    Hope this helped?
    thanks so for this question
    "examine the ways inwhich sociologists have explained the process of socialisation"

    -my knowledge would be things about primary and secondary socialisation and bring in differnet persepctives (i.e who it benefits)
    -I'm not too sure about understanding?
    -Evaluatate by contrasting the differnt perspectives

    is this right?
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    (Original post by XXSimmyXX)
    thanks so for this question
    "examine the ways inwhich sociologists have explained the process of socialisation"

    -my knowledge would be things about primary and secondary socialisation and bring in differnet persepctives (i.e who it benefits)
    -I'm not too sure about understanding?
    -Evaluatate by contrasting the differnt perspectives

    is this right?
    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Understanding is basically reinforcing what you know. Saying it in other words basically.
    E.g. Functionalists are people are socialised into a value consensus. (Show you know what you mean by value consensus- so you say, a value consensus is a functionalist belief that everyone has the same idea about society).
    Yes, exactly- evaluate!
    So say 'However, Marxists criticise functionalist interpretations on socialistation, they argue we are socialised to be subordinated by the ruling class etc etc.

    Yep, pretty much right!
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    (Original post by weirdnessandcoffee)
    Understanding is basically reinforcing what you know. Saying it in other words basically.
    E.g. Functionalists are people are socialised into a value consensus. (Show you know what you mean by value consensus- so you say, a value consensus is a functionalist belief that everyone has the same idea about society).
    Yes, exactly- evaluate!
    So say 'However, Marxists criticise functionalist interpretations on socialistation, they argue we are socialised to be subordinated by the ruling class etc etc.

    Yep, pretty much right!
    thanks thats helped
    I might try write the essay for that question later, would you be willing to give me feedbck on.how to improve?
    im guessing your doing A2 because ai noticed your doing crime and deviance, what grade did u get at As?

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    (Original post by XXSimmyXX)
    thanks thats helped
    I might try write the essay for that question later, would you be willing to give me feedbck on.how to improve?
    im guessing your doing A2 because ai noticed your doing crime and deviance, what grade did u get at As?

    Posted from TSR Mobile
    Sure, I'll help.
    Got an A last year
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    (Original post by weirdnessandcoffee)
    Sure, I'll help.
    Got an A last year
    Well done on the grade and here's what Iv done... Examine the ways in which sociologists have explained the process of socialisation One way in which consensus sociologists have explained the process of socialisation is by arguing that it is needed for value consensus. This is the belief that in order for society to function properly everyone must have shared norms and values- the process of socialisation passes these norms and values on to future generations. However, conflict sociologists, such as Marxists, would argue that the process of socialisation exists in order to benefit the bourgeoisie by making the proletariat accept their oppression in society. They use the term 'false consciousness' to describe the Proletariat's failure to see their real interests. Structural Sociologists all argue that the process of socialisation is passed on through social institutions such as the family, schools, religion and the mass media. The socialisation from immediate family, usually at early stages in life, is referred to as Primary Socialisation. This often consist of passing down particular norms and values that may not be common amongst everyone in society. Therefore, Secondary Socialisation exists to 'modify' these particularistic norms and values into universalistic ones. Structural sociologists suggest that this is how society creates individuals- they take a macro stance to explain the process of socialisation. However, interactionalists, taking a micro stance, isn't as simple as that because individuals can negotiate their own identities. For example, they may argue that the social institutions may influence individuals differently. Furthermore, Postmodernists would argue that with all of the free choice available in society, individuals will all be socialised differently due to the large choices that they have available to them. So that's basically m attempt of the essay question, how can I improve?
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    (Original post by XXSimmyXX)
    Well done on the grade and here's what Iv done... Examine the ways in which sociologists have explained the process of socialisation One way in which consensus sociologists have explained the process of socialisation is by arguing that it is needed for value consensus. This is the belief that in order for society to function properly everyone must have shared norms and values- the process of socialisation passes these norms and values on to future generations. However, conflict sociologists, such as Marxists, would argue that the process of socialisation exists in order to benefit the bourgeoisie by making the proletariat accept their oppression in society. They use the term 'false consciousness' to describe the Proletariat's failure to see their real interests. Structural Sociologists all argue that the process of socialisation is passed on through social institutions such as the family, schools, religion and the mass media. The socialisation from immediate family, usually at early stages in life, is referred to as Primary Socialisation. This often consist of passing down particular norms and values that may not be common amongst everyone in society. Therefore, Secondary Socialisation exists to 'modify' these particularistic norms and values into universalistic ones. Structural sociologists suggest that this is how society creates individuals- they take a macro stance to explain the process of socialisation. However, interactionalists, taking a micro stance, isn't as simple as that because individuals can negotiate their own identities. For example, they may argue that the social institutions may influence individuals differently. Furthermore, Postmodernists would argue that with all of the free choice available in society, individuals will all be socialised differently due to the large choices that they have available to them. So that's basically m attempt of the essay question, how can I improve?
    Great, it's really good.

    To improve...
    - Say WHICH sociologists explain the process of socialisation is because of needing value consensus- functionalists.
    Define what the norms and values are.
    You've put the functionalist explanation (primary and secondary) after the Marxist one- you might want to put that in with the functionalist one then go onto arguing Marxist points.

    But all in all, its really good.

    The only two things you need to improve on are on essay structure.

    So-
    point= knowledge. 'Functionalists argue the process of socialisation is motivated by the need to establish a value consensus.

    evidence=understanding. 'A value consensus is the belief that society has shared norms and values, which are things everyone in a society sees as normal and expected of its members to share.'

    Explain- As functionalists are structuralists, they believe in primary and secondary socialisation. Primary socialisation refers to what happens in the the younger years of life, before a child starts school. For example, this is learning how to talk and walk- adapting to what human society expects and sees as normal. Secondary socialisation happens at the later stage of a childs life, and is passed on through agents of social control which try to regulate the individual to society like school, governments, media and the police force. This is a key way of how structural sociologists look at society, they see it in macro form- meaning a big way because the individual is less important.

    Evaluation- Then go onto explain Marxists. However, Marxists believe that socialisation exists to benefit the bourgeoisie, who are the ruling class of society against the proloterait- the working classes and their workers.

    More evaluation- Interactionalists argue from a micro stance- they look at the individuals relative importance in society because they believe in the individual reacts differently to society. Post modernists further argue that socialisation is not as strict as the Marxist and Functionalist views, as the individual has choice in a 'pic n mix' society.

    Basically, you know what you need to write. You have the knowledge. Just work on the structure I'd say.
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    (Original post by weirdnessandcoffee)
    Great, it's really good.

    To improve...
    - Say WHICH sociologists explain the process of socialisation is because of needing value consensus- functionalists.
    Define what the norms and values are.
    You've put the functionalist explanation (primary and secondary) after the Marxist one- you might want to put that in with the functionalist one then go onto arguing Marxist points.

    But all in all, its really good.

    The only two things you need to improve on are on essay structure.

    So-
    point= knowledge. 'Functionalists argue the process of socialisation is motivated by the need to establish a value consensus.

    evidence=understanding. 'A value consensus is the belief that society has shared norms and values, which are things everyone in a society sees as normal and expected of its members to share.'

    Explain- As functionalists are structuralists, they believe in primary and secondary socialisation. Primary socialisation refers to what happens in the the younger years of life, before a child starts school. For example, this is learning how to talk and walk- adapting to what human society expects and sees as normal. Secondary socialisation happens at the later stage of a childs life, and is passed on through agents of social control which try to regulate the individual to society like school, governments, media and the police force. This is a key way of how structural sociologists look at society, they see it in macro form- meaning a big way because the individual is less important.

    Evaluation- Then go onto explain Marxists. However, Marxists believe that socialisation exists to benefit the bourgeoisie, who are the ruling class of society against the proloterait- the working classes and their workers.

    More evaluation- Interactionalists argue from a micro stance- they look at the individuals relative importance in society because they believe in the individual reacts differently to society. Post modernists further argue that socialisation is not as strict as the Marxist and Functionalist views, as the individual has choice in a 'pic n mix' society.

    Basically, you know what you need to write. You have the knowledge. Just work on the structure I'd say.
    Thank you and yh that's what my teacher says, you've helped my by breaking the essay down into chunks I'll keep practicing
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    If there was a question on family sizes what would I talk about.
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    (Original post by weirdnessandcoffee)
    Sure, I'll help.
    Got an A last year
    Was wondering if you could possibly help me out too as keep doing practice essays but just want to know I'm on the right page?
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    (Original post by withlove)
    Was wondering if you could possibly help me out too as keep doing practice essays but just want to know I'm on the right page?
    Sure
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    (Original post by weirdnessandcoffee)
    Sure
    Using material from Item 1A and elsewhere, assess sociological explanations of gender differences in education (20 marks)

    Throughout the years both sexes have improved at all levels of education, although the rate of girls’ improvement has been more rapid and a significant gap has opened up, particularly at GCSE. There are a number of reasons for gender differences in achievement considering the external and internal factors.
    There have been important changes in women’s employment in the recent decades, including the equal pay act and the rise in women employment by 47%, which have encouraged girls to see their future in terms of paid work rather than just being housewives. These greater career opportunities and better pay for women provide an incentive for girls to gain qualifications and to participate in further education. Also, since the 1960’s the feminist movement has challenged the traditional woman’s role as solely that of mother and housewife. Feminists argue that we have not achieved full equality between the sexes yet, but this movement has had considerable success in improving women’s rights and opportunities. These changes have affected girls’ attitudes and ambitions towards education, for example, Sharpe compared the results of interviews she conducted with girls in the 1970’s and 1990’s and her findings show a major shift in the way girls see themselves and their future.

    Many sociologists argue that feminist ideas have had a major impact of the education system, as there is the belief that boys and girls are equally capable and entitled to the same opportunities is now part of mainstream thinking in education and influences education policies; for example, GIST and WISE encourage girls to pursue careers in these non-traditional areas. However, while radical feminists recognise that girls are achieving more, they emphasise that the system remains patriarchal as women are under-represented in many areas of the curriculum.

    In recent years there has been an increase in the proportion of female teachers and head teachers which may act as roles models for girls, showing them that women can achieve positions of importance and giving them non-traditional goals to aim for. However, the way in which teachers interact with boys and girls differ as Spencer found that teachers spend more time interacting with boys than girls. Similarly, Swann and Graddol found that boys are generally more boisterous so they attract the teachers gaze more than girls, so they often got more opportunity to speak. Although, they found that the way teachers interacted with girls was more positive as focused on their schoolwork rather than their behaviour.

    Marketisation policies have created a more competitive climate in which schools see girls as more desirable recruits as they achieve better exam results. Jackson notes that the introduction of exam league tables has improved girls opportunities which tend to create a self-fulfilling prophecy. As a result, boys are seen as ‘liability students’ which give schools a negative image that deters high-achieving girls from applying.

    The gender gap in achievement has given rise to concern about boys falling behind and there are several possible factors which could be responsible for this. According to the DCSF, the gender gap is mainly the result of boys’ poor literacy and language skills and this may be that parents spend less time reading to their sons. Also, Sewell claims that the feminisation of education is the reason that boys fall behind as they do not nurture ‘masculine’ traits such as competitiveness. There is also a lack of strong male role models in school, and at home, however Francis found that 2/3 of 7-8 year olds believed that gender of teachers does not matter.

    In conclusion, there are several factors which can explain the gender gap in education, with some being for the better, like more equality for girls, and some for the worse, like the feminisation of education for boys. Despite all this, I believe that these differences are what is needed for society in order to make women strive for better grades and for men to not feel like the ‘top dogs’ all the time to gain equality.
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    Examine the reasons, and the consequences of, the fall in the death rate since 1900.

    in the UK, the death rate has remained fairly stable at about 600,000 per year 1900. However, in 1900 this is obviously out of a smaller population. The death rate is the number of deaths per thousand of the population per year. In 1900, the death rate stood at 19 but by 2007 of most half to 10

    Thomas Mckeown 1972 argues that improve nutrition accounted for up to half the reduction in death rates and was particularly important in reducing the number of deaths on TB. Better nutrition increased resistance to infection and increased survival chances of those who did become infected. Therefore the improved nutrition in food and diet had gradually decreased death rates. However, others have challenged McKeowns explanation as why women live longer but receive a smaller share of the family's food supply, nor why deaths from some infectious diseases such as infant diarrhoea actually rose at time of improving nutrition.

    After the 1950s, improved medical knowledge,techniques and organisations did help reduce death rates.ADvances included introduction of antibiotics, blood transfusion, a setting up of a public national Health service in 1949.More recently,improved medication, by pass surgery and others developments have led to a decrease from deaths from heart disease by one third.THis shows that improvements over the past few years have increased the well being of people.

    In the 20th century, more effective central and local government with necessary power to pass and enforce laws led to a range of improvements in public health and the quality of the environment. These include improvements in housing (producing drier, better ventilated and less overcrowded accommodation), purer drinking water and laws to combat adulteration of food and drink.

    Other social changes have played a part in reducing death rates from the 20th century.For example, the decline in dangerous jobs such as mining.Greater knowledge of the causes of illnesses and smaller family sizes means a decrease in the rate of transmission of infection. With each social change this has gradually slowed down death rates by improvements in technology and so on.

    Life expectancy refers to how long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live.As death rates have fallen so life expectancy increases.For example, males born in 1900 could expect on average to live until they were 50(57 for females). Males born in 2003-5 can expect to live for 76.9 years (81.2 for males).Nevertheless, there are class,gender and regional differences. Women generally live longer than men although the gap has increased due to changes in employment and lifestyle such as women smoking.SImarly, those living in North and Scotland have a lower life expectancy than those in the south, while working class men in unskilled or manual jobs are nearly 3 times likely to die before they are 65 compared with men in managerial or professional jobs.

    The Griffiths report 1988 on the care of the elderly saw society as facing the problem of meeting escalating costs of health and social care for the growing number of old people.Recently, there have been concerns about the pensions time bombs, with the fears about how society will meet the cost of providing pensions for elderly. In modern societies 'ageism' the negative stereotyping of people on the basis of their age-often portrays old people as vulnerable,incompetent or irrational, and a burden to society.This contrasts with the view of the elderly found in traditional societies in these cultures, the old are revered and respected;ageing is associated with a rising status.

    Accoridng to HIrsch 2005 the main problem of an ageing population will be how to fiancé a longer period of old age. This can either be done by paying from our savings and taxes while we are working, or by continuing to work for longer, or a combination of both.

    As the evidence shows there has been a gradual decline in death rates due to many changes from changes in laws to medical improvements and so on. However, this means there is a greater number of old people which increases the dependency ratio and the burden for the working population as they would have to provide money for healthcare and pensions through taxes.
 
 
 
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