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    I always revise to the limit for all my examinations, and my tests prove such poor results. I don't get it. I revised well, took breaks and done questions. I feel like such a failure... I revise everyday, I understand the topic well, memorised my notes exceptionally well. If I fail this chemistry end of unit examination I'll feel like a eternal fool. Can someone help me? Possibly even test me for my upcoming science test on fundamental ideas, chemistry?
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    Sure Chemistry is literally the only science I can properly ace, so I'm happy to help What exam board?
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    Thank You.
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    Thank You. You know about fundamental ideas, in the AQA specification, right?
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    Well, can you tell me if these notes for fundamental ideas is enough & worth it?
    FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS;
    § All elements in the same group in the periodic table have similar chemical properties.
    § This is because their atoms have the same number of electrons in their highest occupied energy level.
    § Elements in the periodic table are arranged to their atomic number.
    § An atom overall electrical charge is zero because the number of protons and electrons are equal and charges are equal and opposite.
    § Group 1 elements = reactive = alkali metals.
    § Group 0 elements = not reactive = noble gases.
    § Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium and potassium all react vigorously with water and produce metal hydroxides + hydrogen.
    § Metal + water = metal hydroxides + hydrogen.
    § Group 0 elements are not reactive because they have the stable arrangement of electrons. Outermost shells are full.
    § Covalent bonds form when an atom shares one or more pairs of their electrons.
    § Metals which lose one or more pairs of their electrons form positively charged ions.
    § Non- metals which gain electrons form negatively charged ions.
    § All metals react with other elements by losing their outermost electrons and forming ‘positively charged ions.’
    § Group 1 elements: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium and francium all just have 1 electron in their outermost orbitals. So they are reactive of all metals as this 1 electron is very easily lost.
    § Atoms with an incomplete outer electron shell are unstable. By either gaining or losing electrons atoms can obtain a full outer electron shell.
    § Atoms which lose one or more pairs of their electrons have more protons than electrons. This means that the atoms have obtained a full outer electron shell by the removal of electrons to form a positive ion.
    § Atoms with a nearly empty outer electron shell will lose electrons to obtain a full outer electron shell.
    § Compounds formed from metals or non-metals consist of ions.
    § Electrons always occupy the lowest energy level first.
    § Electrons are in a particular energy level.
    § Atoms have a small, central nucleus composed of 2 subatomic particles = protons + neutrons.
    § Around the nucleus there are electrons which carry a negative charge and are in an orbit.
    § Protons and electrons have an electrical charge; both have the same size of electrical charge. But protons are positive; electrons are negative and neutrons are neutral.
    § PROTONS = +1
    § ELECTRONS = -1
    § NEUTRONS = 0.
    § Ionic bonds = transfer of electrons = metals and non- metals only.
    § Elements in a period have the same occupied energy levels or shells.
    § SIMILARITY BETWEEN ELEMENTS IN SAME GROUP IN PERIODIC TABLE:
    § Same number of electrons in the highest occupied energy level.
    § DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS IN SAME GROUP IN PERIODIC TABLE:
    § Number of shells increase as you move down in the groups.
    § Covalent bonds form because an atom of a non-metal would want to share its electrons with an atom of a different non-metal, as both of these non-metals would want to complete their outer shell by the shared pair of electrons.
    § Ionic bonds form because an atom of a metal would want to lose its electrons in its outermost orbital to obtain a full outer electron shell; the atom of the metal then becomes a positive ion as of this result. The atom of the metal does this by transferring its electrons from its outer shell to an atom of a non-metal which needs to gain electrons to complete its outer shell; the atom of the non-metal then becomes a negative ion as of this result.
    § Electrons always occupy the lowest energy level first, the remaining electrons then go and occupy the higher energy levels.
    § Innermost shells are the lowest energy level.
    § Outer shells have the higher energy levels
    § The number of protons determines the atom’s identity.
    § The number of electrons determines the charge of the element.
    § The atomic weight is the average mass of an naturally occurring atom, an isotope and taking account of neutrons in each isotope.
 
 
 

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