European Reformation (AS HIS1C): Mistake in this textbook?

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Alex347_
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In the AQA textbook for European History, it says that Charles V attended the Second Diet of Speyer, and cites the 'fact' that the war with The League of Cognac (particularly France) had ended, and the siege at Vienna had been relieved. However, countless other sources say Charles was absent still fighting the League of Cognac, and to me it seems that the Peace of Cambrai only entered negotiation stages three months after the April 25th Protestation at Speyer.

My questions are then basically, was Charles V absent during the Protestation at Speyer? Also why? Was he fighting France/League of Cognac still, and also did the Siege of Vienna occur during the sitting of this Diet? He had to be doing something, otherwise he'd have been in a great position to force the Lutheran princes to accept the Edict of Worms, and the 1529 resolution you'd imagine.
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GrammarGirl
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(Original post by Alex347_)
In the AQA textbook for European History, it says that Charles V attended the Second Diet of Speyer, and cites the 'fact' that the war with The League of Cognac (particularly France) had ended, and the siege at Vienna had been relieved. However, countless other sources say Charles was absent still fighting the League of Cognac, and to me it seems that the Peace of Cambrai only entered negotiation stages three months after the April 25th Protestation at Speyer.

My questions are then basically, was Charles V absent during the Protestation at Speyer? Also why? Was he fighting France/League of Cognac still, and also did the Siege of Vienna occur during the sitting of this Diet? He had to be doing something, otherwise he'd have been in a great position to force the Lutheran princes to accept the Edict of Worms, and the 1529 resolution you'd imagine.
Hey! I did this course last year/ doing the spanish course this year where we learn about Charles! He was not present at Speyer, but instead he sent his brother and Regent Ferdinand. I think around the time of the Speyer Diet Charles was in Spain where he had to deal with various Revolts, e.g Communeros and Germania in 1522 as well as taming the nobility and trying to get Spain's finances in order. Just after 1529 he sent sail from Spain to Germany to officially start his imperial obligations (although he became HRE in 1519, he wasn't officially recognised until 1529.) One of the main reasons he couldn't force the Lutheran princes to accept the Edict was that he relied heavily on them for money and troops which meant that he had to deal with situations such as Speyer very cautiously.

I know this is very brief/not detailed but I hope it helps! Feel free to message me if you want anything clarifying, I got full UMS on this paper last year
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Thebeast97
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How do you get 24/24 on say a Luther or Calvin question. I always seem to get 18/19 out of 24 and I don't know how to improve
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(Original post by Thebeast97)
How do you get 24/24 on say a Luther or Calvin question. I always seem to get 18/19 out of 24 and I don't know how to improve
make sure your intro is clear and to the point; if the q has a range of years make sure your intro addresses all of this.
make sure you have historian debate, e.g Knox's view of how geneva was the perfect school of Christ vs. Dufour's view of heartless discipline
make sure your arguments have depth and can be fully explained
I always tried to end on a quotation from a historian.
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Thebeast97
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(Original post by GrammarGirl)
make sure your intro is clear and to the point; if the q has a range of years make sure your intro addresses all of this.
make sure you have historian debate, e.g Knox's view of how geneva was the perfect school of Christ vs. Dufour's view of heartless discipline
make sure your arguments have depth and can be fully explained
I always tried to end on a quotation from a historian.
If possible, do you have any saved 24 marker essays or even 12 markers that you could share please?
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(Original post by Thebeast97)
If possible, do you have any saved 24 marker essays or even 12 markers that you could share please?
Yeah I have a few, how should I share them, (just post them on here or send attachments somewhere)
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I don't mind. Than-you so much!!!
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I don't mind. Than-you so much!!!
DISCLAIMER: this is going to be a long post, (sorry guys) but it will include 4 12 markers and 2 24 markers.


Explain the work of the consistory (12/12)
The consistory was an organisation created by John Calvin in his second attempt of Geneva in 1541-64, whose work was most important in the enforcement of discipline in Geneva.
One of its main roles was to enforce high standards of both religious and social behaviour. Most of the cases that they dealt with were religious issues such as missing mass and testing the laity they knew basic prayers. However their work soon focused on moral standards such as sexual misconduct and neighbour disputes. As they met every Thursday and grew in size from 1542-1564, the consistory could run very efficiently which meant that their work was very constant and of a high standard.
However the work of the consistory was seen as rather intrusive by the Genevan people. Their duty soon became centred on public behaviour; they implemented a simple dress code and condemned singing, whistling and dancing. Calvin argued that the consistory’s work was needed in order to abolish the inner lack of seriousness within the Genevan community.
Lastly, their work also dealt with matters that did not seem particularly important, such as controlling imports, restricting the price of bread and planning a new refuge system. The consistory made sure that their laws were being abided by through punishments; a very central issue in their work. These ranged from public humiliations to excommunication and execution.
In essence the consistory’s work was a method in which Calvin controlled and maintained discipline in Geneva. The work of the consistory was very important in installing order into Geneva, which is why many historians, such as William Monter, have described the work of the consistory as ‘the most distinctive institution in Calvin’s Geneva.’

Explain why Calvin was expelled from Geneva in 1538. (12/12)

Calvin was expelled from Geneva in 1538, as in the early stages of his reformation attempt he was resented due to the fact that he was a foreign influence, however during the later stages it was his disciplinary ideas and restructure of the church that meant that he was disliked by the council and the people of Geneva.

When Calvin first arrived in Geneva in 1536, he was very much disliked by a faction within it, called Pro-Berne. This was party who was very patriotic and wanted to save Geneva from French influence. Their ties with the neighboring city of Berne meant that they were a very strong opposition to Calvin. Calvin had been born in France and only left due to King Francis’ vow to kill all religious protestors after the Day of the Placards in 1533. The simple fact that Calvin had come from France was enough for him to be instantly disliked by a very dominant force within Geneva, which ultimately played a large role in his expulsion.

However, the most important factor in Calvin’s excommunication in 1538 was the implementation of his ideas, which were centered on discipline. It was decided that all citizens should swear upon Calvin’s articles and that his organisation of the church should be imposed. Calvin’s Institutes of the Christian religion also acted as a handbook for the people of Geneva, on what they should now believe. Geneva was not used to discipline and order; with their bishop being driven out in 1536 and constant changing of power within the structure of government. This resulted in many people not turning up to swear and the little council deciding that they would only implement his idea slowly.

The Pro-Berne dynamic also played a major role in Calvin’s expulsion. The council structure before Calvin’s reform placed the real power in the syndics, who acted as full time governors and elected annually. In 1538 new syndics were elected who were heavily committed to reform, but were not loyal to Calvin. The council used the preexisting link with Berne to their advantage. Berne was introducing common practices in their reformed churches; the Pro-Berne faction, who also agreed with the practices, largely because they went against Calvin’s ideas, brought these to the council’s attention. The Syndics and the Little Council, who also held the most power in the city, agreed that these should be implemented in Geneva. This angered Calvin, as he was not easily refused. Calvin then took very extreme lengths to stop these practices by trying to excommunicate the entire city; to which the Council of Geneva responded by ordering Calvin out of the city, believing that he was a very dangerous extremist. The existence of this very structure allowed Calvin to lose control of his reformation and eventually led to him being expelled in 1538.

To conclude, by 1538 Calvin was expelled in Geneva due to his new and radical ideas, which Geneva was not used to, which was only accentuated by the fact that many people resented his French background. He was in effect, ‘shooting at a moving target’ according to Randell.

Explain why Calvin was opposed in the years 1536-38

Calvin’s first attempt in Geneva was hampered even before he had tried to make changes in the city, due the reason that he was seen as a foreigner, which many Geneva’s did not like. This was the main reason for why Calvin was opposed. Calvin resided in France throughout his life, studying Law in Paris and being present when Protestantism rose. It could be argued that he only left France because of the Day of the Placards in 1533. Rebels had put up posters on the king’s door, which he saw as a huge political threat, which led to him vowing to kill all protestors. As a result Calvin’s brother was shot in the street. As Calvin fled due to threat of death, the people in Geneva believed that he was still loyal to France.
He was also opposed, as his radical ideas of discipline were not readily accepted. His Institutes of the Christian Religion developed his doctrinal position and was the first sign that Calvin believed in discipline. Calvin wanted to implement his ‘Articles on the organization of the church’ in 1537, which introduced the concept of discipline imposed by excommunication. The genevan people did not arrive to swear the oath, the more senior the members were the more unlikely they were to swear the oath. Geneva not used to structure and discipline, with their bishop being defeated in 1536.
This led to opposition from the council. The council would only comply slowly and saw that with the tiny amount who signed the Oath as risky as they did want to attract negative opinions. In 1538 Calvin was opposed due to the structure of the Genevan church. Syndics were elected yearly and in 1538 new ones were elected who wanted reform but refused Calvin and Farrell. Instead they wanted to introduce the church teachings that were being started in the neighboring city of Berne.
Ultimately Calvin was opposed due to his rather radical views, which Geneva was difficult to grasp. It is precisely this reason why Randell has stated that Calvin was ‘shooting at a moving target.’

Explain why the Genevan Academy was founded in 1559?

The ultimate reason why the Academy was founded in 1559 was due to Calvin’s defeat of Ami Perrin who fled in 1555. This allowed his land being sold, which generated money for the Academy. It was only Calvin’s defeat of his opponents, especially the Libertines, that the Council made the funds available to build the academy.
Also it was also founded as there was a general need for it. Geneva lacked a place of higher education, which led to Calvin forming the College and the Academy to train future ministers and the elite of Calvinism, with a great emphasis on the theology.
Calvin was founded the academy as he wanted to train the future ministers as missionaries. His aim was not to train students for careers but instead to be effective preachers and missionaries. This was particularly because he wanted to convert France, which is why the Academy attracted large numbers of French students. The courses were not cutting edge or innovative but where mot focused on training the students in doctrinal beliefs as an attempt to extend Calvinism throughout Europe. This made the council more inclined to support it, which is another reason why it was founded. The council was attracted to it as it combined the normal functions of a College but also a more advanced institution.
The academy was also founded as it could be. Not only had Calvin obtained the funds and support but he also had the resources. Teachers and lecturers were available to come from Switzerland. Above all a college at Lausanne lost many of its teachers, which Calvin quickly headhunted to be apart of his college.
To conclude, Calvin was able to found the academy in 1559 as in that year he had achieved the discipline set out in his Ecclesiastical Ordinances of 1541, which led to the defeat of his opposition. This is exactly the reason why Randell has commented that Calvin ‘viewed the Academy as the most pleasing of his achievements.’


To what extent was Martin Luther the key to the Reformation? (23/24) not a fan of my answer to this, was written towards start of AS, you can probably do better!

In 1517 Martin Luther hung up his ’95 Theses’ as a public challenge to the corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. This gained an increasing amount of recognition around Germany and across Christendom.

Luther’s action was a direct response to the activities of Johann Tetzel who, since 1514, had been selling Indulgences around Germany. These indulgences were sold to the laity and which were, in Lotherington’s view seen as a ‘passport to heaven’ for their friends and families in Purgatory. However in reality theses were not for spiritual salvation but instead used to build St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. The Archbishop of Mainz had instructed Tetzel to travel to Juterburg to sell these indulgences to the impressionable laity as a strategy to make money. Money in which he desperately needed in order to pay off his debts incurred from loans used to pay for his second bishopric. Luther’s ’95 Theses’ was an attempt to question the Roman Catholic Church’s scriptural foundations. In 1520 Luther produced three other important pamphlets which each built on his theological idea of ‘sola fide’ and ‘sola scriptura’, both of which opposed the sale of indulgences and the church’s practises.

Despite Luther’s obvious opposition of the church, Rome did not formally react until 1518 when Cardinal Catejan was sent to make Luther recant his works, to which Luther refused. Luther again refused to recant in July 1519 at a debate in Leipzig. His opponent John Eck was renowned for his debating skills, which coupled with the location of the debate – chosen to bring back memories of The Hussite War of 1419-1434, was aimed at publically humiliating Luther. However at this debate Luther did no recant but instead officially declared himself a heretic. This left the church no choice but to excommunicate him in the papal bull of 1520 known as ‘Exsurge Domine.’ Mullet views that Luther’s “place in history is assured’ and argues that he is a “figure of titanic greatness” in regards to the reformation. This idea is shown when Luther did not surrender to the church but instead burned the papal bull, therefore officially breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church.

However there are many other important factors. Euan Cameron agrees with this interpretation as he states that ‘it is difficult to place him in proper perspective’ and that Luther was ‘only one formidable intellect.’ He views Luther as a strong cause but not the sole cause of the reformation. For one, Luther’s ideas could not have reached as many people without the invention of the printing press. By means of this device, his views had caught the attention of the German princes and from 1521 the Lutheran reformation had become a very princely one. Macculoch views that at the start of the radical movement Luther had led “an accidental revolution,” which suggests that, unlike the princes, Luther didn’t desire the reformation to go on as far as it had. At the Diet of Speyer in 1526 it was the princes who negotiated with the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, to allow the princes to choose the religion of their area of Germany. With Charles being very reliant on the princes as they held the electoral power he agreed to the deal. This is clear evidence of how the princes were a massive influence in the reformation and how their contribution was key. Phillip of Hesse was also a key figure, especially in 1529. He founded the first purpose-built Lutheran university as well as attempting to prevent splits within the protestant movement by organising the Schmalkadic League to defend it in 1531. In addition, Phillip of Hesse as well as John of Saxony were both worried by the League of Dessau which brought Catholic princes together, and so, in a bid to continue the spread of Luthernism decided to join the League of Torgau in 1526. All of these actions aided the spread of Lutheranism around Germany.

When Luther died in 1546 the Lutheran movement did not cease. This is yet another point that he was not the sole contributor to the reformation. It was not until 1555 that the princes guaranteed political independence to choice their own faith at the Diet of Ausburg. This shows that even without Luther’s presence, the movement still spread and had been victorious over the Holy Roman Emperor.

To conclude Luther was a key factor in the early days of the reformation. It was his concepts of justification by faith alone which caught the attention of the already anti-clerical Germany. With this being said, it is quite clear that without the help of the printing press, Phillip of Hesse and John of Saxony the Lutheran reformation would have run its course just like Jan Hus in the 1400’s. Before 1521 it is justified to say that Luther was the sole figure of the reformation but after this date it is evident that the princes played a key role in the German reformation.

Why did the Reformation start in Germany? (22/24)

A major trigger for the Reformation starting in Germany occurred in October 1517 when Martin Luther published his ’95 Theses’. This action had been a consequence of the activities of John Tetzel, who was selling Indulgences very close by to Wittenburg since 1514, where Luther was residing. Tetzel was promising that ‘as soon as the coin into the coffer rings the soul from purgatory springs,’ however this was not the case as in reality they were going towards the development of St. Peter’s Basilica. Luther vented his anger at this in the ’95 Theses’, insisting that the Pope should build it ‘with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers.’ The ’95 Theses’ fuelled the reformation, as it highlighted the areas in which the church had got it wrong; a revolutionary action in the 16th Century. Furthermore the events that followed afterwards also shaped the Reformation as Luther soon published his 3 pamphlets in which he voiced his radical views on “sola scriptura” and “sola fide” which captured the minds of Germans alike. This set the foundations for Luther’ theology, that ultimately led to a change in the corruption of the church.

However the ’95 Theses’ would not have been so widely distributed across Germany without the help of the printing press, invented around 1450. This invention is one of the leading causes when determining how Luther’s idea spread around Germany so quickly. Without it there would have been no platform for Luther’s theology and therefore only a small minority of people would have known about his revolutionary ideas. In addition his works were printed in the German language, meaning that they were accessible by the laity and not just the clergy.

Moreover there is much evidence to suggest that this widespread dissidence was seen for centuries before Martin Luther. An example of this would be the burst of Universities that were founded in Germany from 1400-1506; rising from 3 to 14. This led to discontent students as there were significant more applicants for fewer positions, meaning growing unemployment and a waste of intellectual talent. Because of this lack of motivation the graduates had no real purpose and so an amorphous amount turned to support Luther as he enticed intellectual stimulation. The fact that Luther now had Germanys alienated elite on his side meant that had an even bigger platform to stand on, not only by the sheer number of supporters but also because they would surely understand his motives more clearly then say the laity would.

Perhaps the most vital reason why the reformation started in Germany is that Luther had the support of German Princes, who were very politically motivated at this point. In the 16th Century the Church owned 30% of German land, which, if became secularized like Luther was suggesting, would be dispensed to the German Princes. Additionally the Princes understood that Luther’s “by faith alone” teaching from his 1520 pamphlets would ensure that if the church was removed then this would surely increase their own power. These two factors would have enticed the Princes into backing Luther as they would not only have more land and money but also more power across Germany and Christendom. Linking with this, there was a strong sense of German Nationalism within the country and there was a strong yearning by German people for a ‘Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.’ In essence this would keep German money in Germany instead of giving it all to Rome; as Germany is described to have been Rome’s ‘cash cow’ this seemed like a very popular idea at the time and acted as an early element of the Reformation.

There are many key reasons why the Reformation started in Germany but the primary argument is that German was very equipped in the 16th century to take on board radical views. It seems that everything about Germany was ready for someone to take action on the growing dissatisfaction and I think that the introduction of the printing press aided this desire greatly as it meant that these ideas, when published, could be distributed effectively. This meant that when Luther did finally begin to reform the church he simply needed to exploit the German environment at the time. As MacCulloch puts it, there “was a ready audience for anyone who cared to speak out,” which in this case was Martin Luther in 1517.
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Thebeast97
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Thank-you very much once again, really appreciate this!
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GrammarGirl
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No problem hope it helps and your exams go well.
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KCheema
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Does anyone have any predictions? Luther and Calvin appear to come up a lot, with focus for Luther dominant on why he came about to success(e.g the support of the princes and absence of the emperor).

Im hoping the success of Lutheranism comes up in terms of explaining why it was a success and also a question of Calvin and his suppression of his opponents for his success.

My teacher is banking on a question in regards to the weak leadership of the anabaptists which would be ok i guess, but i dont have much historiography on it and so leaves me a bit blank in regards to interpretation. He also thinks a question on new orders will come up and also a 12 marker for the calvin church government.

What do you guys think?
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Thebeast97
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(Original post by KCheema)
Does anyone have any predictions? Luther and Calvin appear to come up a lot, with focus for Luther dominant on why he came about to success(e.g the support of the princes and absence of the emperor).

Im hoping the success of Lutheranism comes up in terms of explaining why it was a success and also a question of Calvin and his suppression of his opponents for his success.

My teacher is banking on a question in regards to the weak leadership of the anabaptists which would be ok i guess, but i dont have much historiography on it and so leaves me a bit blank in regards to interpretation. He also thinks a question on new orders will come up and also a 12 marker for the calvin church government.

What do you guys think?
The 12 marker on the Peace of Augsburg was horrible. Want to cry over it
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KCheema
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(Original post by Thebeast97)
The 12 marker on the Peace of Augsburg was horrible. Want to cry over it
I wasn't expecting It either. It completely threw me and I hadn't revised it at all.

What did you say for it?
I tried to drag out what I did know about and has a guess at it and amazingly what I said was correct!!! I said about how it made Lutheranism a legal force within Europe and the HRE and then talked about how this in effect meant that calvinism was actually going against the agreement made in 1555.

I then went on to say how it was agreed because the Catholic Church was looking for ways to compromise with the Protestant advance within Europe. I said about how it wanted to get peace because it didn't want the reformation to go ant further and they wanted tog avoid further criticism and possible downfall as they had experienced a considerable amount already.

I also linked it to the desire of Charles V, the emperor, in that he wanted to make compromises between the two sides for both personal and political reasons(he would fall from power as the secular ruler otherwise).

That's all I could really get out of my brain for this question but I told my teacher after and he said that's fine and as long as it was a balanced argument with facts then ill get the marks.

I loved the German princes for success of Lutheranism question!! I predicted it would come up because it always does. What did you Include for this question?

My teacher predicted that a 12 marker on anabaptism was going to come up and it did so I did well on that question.

Unfortunately I was racing time by my last question, the 24 marker for calvinism and his ecclesiastical ordinances of 1541. However I managed to make a few points within 15 minutes. I said that the ordinances presented an organisation and a clearly reformed faith that Calvin had planned for the city. I included the details it had on the church government as another point. I also mentioned however that the little council agreed to the conditions in the ordinances but only upon a few modifications, which showed their adamancy to have a say in matters still.

I then went on to say that another important factor was the suppression of calvins opposition. I included the 1551 Jeremy Bolsec example of when he denied double predestination. I went on to say how he came to be expelled by the syndics upon criticism and argument with calvin and how this exemplified calvins political authority and support of the cities councils and governors. Then I have prominence to the servetus case and mentioned the perrin family and how their support for the failed servetus led to their removal from Genevan councils and the selling of their lands.

I then went on to make a new point ti say how the defeat of the servetus case brought financial aid to calvins reformation as the funds from the selling of the perrin lands was made available to him and it was from these funds that he was able to set up the Genevan academy in 1559. I said how this influenced thousands across Europe and taught the key beliefs of calvin and therefore spread his ideas even further.

I then concluded, saying that the suppression of the opposition was the more Important factor.

How about you? Sorry for the long reply.
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Thebeast97
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(Original post by KCheema)
I wasn't expecting It either. It completely threw me and I hadn't revised it at all.

What did you say for it?
I tried to drag out what I did know about and has a guess at it and amazingly what I said was correct!!! I said about how it made Lutheranism a legal force within Europe and the HRE and then talked about how this in effect meant that calvinism was actually going against the agreement made in 1555.

I then went on to say how it was agreed because the Catholic Church was looking for ways to compromise with the Protestant advance within Europe. I said about how it wanted to get peace because it didn't want the reformation to go ant further and they wanted tog avoid further criticism and possible downfall as they had experienced a considerable amount already.

I also linked it to the desire of Charles V, the emperor, in that he wanted to make compromises between the two sides for both personal and political reasons(he would fall from power as the secular ruler otherwise).

That's all I could really get out of my brain for this question but I told my teacher after and he said that's fine and as long as it was a balanced argument with facts then ill get the marks.

I loved the German princes for success of Lutheranism question!! I predicted it would come up because it always does. What did you Include for this question?

My teacher predicted that a 12 marker on anabaptism was going to come up and it did so I did well on that question.

Unfortunately I was racing time by my last question, the 24 marker for calvinism and his ecclesiastical ordinances of 1541. However I managed to make a few points within 15 minutes. I said that the ordinances presented an organisation and a clearly reformed faith that Calvin had planned for the city. I included the details it had on the church government as another point. I also mentioned however that the little council agreed to the conditions in the ordinances but only upon a few modifications, which showed their adamancy to have a say in matters still.

I then went on to say that another important factor was the suppression of calvins opposition. I included the 1551 Jeremy Bolsec example of when he denied double predestination. I went on to say how he came to be expelled by the syndics upon criticism and argument with calvin and how this exemplified calvins political authority and support of the cities councils and governors. Then I have prominence to the servetus case and mentioned the perrin family and how their support for the failed servetus led to their removal from Genevan councils and the selling of their lands.

I then went on to make a new point ti say how the defeat of the servetus case brought financial aid to calvins reformation as the funds from the selling of the perrin lands was made available to him and it was from these funds that he was able to set up the Genevan academy in 1559. I said how this influenced thousands across Europe and taught the key beliefs of calvin and therefore spread his ideas even further.

I then concluded, saying that the suppression of the opposition was the more Important factor.

How about you? Sorry for the long reply.
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I basically just said for that question was that Lutheranism was able to operate freely without fear from the Catholic Church. Did 2 paragraphs on that question so hopefully I will pick something up
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KCheema
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(Original post by Thebeast97)
I basically just said for that question was that Lutheranism was able to operate freely without fear from the Catholic Church. Did 2 paragraphs on that question so hopefully I will pick something up
How about the other questions you did?
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Thebeast97
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How about the other questions you did?
Can't actually remember but I was happy with the other questions. Just annoyed with that 12 maker because all the other questions for Luther were quite simple.
I have AQA 2F on Thursday which I'm quite nervous about 😩
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What were the dates on Luther 24 marker suggesting? I didn't get it so had to leave it out and do the other 2
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(Original post by twelfthnight)
What were the dates on Luther 24 marker suggesting? I didn't get it so had to leave it out and do the other 2
It was from 1525 wasn't it? Well first off it tried to catch us out because most people would want to include Frederick the wise but he died in January 1525 so had no influence. Other than that, you just had to explain the important of the princes support, there were not major dates that needed to be included in the answer.

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Concern about myself or my loves ones getting/having been ill (101)
4.2%
Exposure to negative news/social media (116)
4.83%
Lack of real life entertainment (128)
5.33%
Lack of confidence in making big life decisions (208)
8.66%
Worry about missed opportunities during the pandemic (225)
9.37%

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