JVD
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Yet again, I'm confused about the wording of many different sources with regards to the design argument. One of the features of said argument is that the universe displays "Purpose". This means that objects within the universe appear to be working towards an end or purpose.

But how is this known? What objects are doing this?

Sorry if it's a simple answer...
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RayApparently
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Design Argument suggests that the nature of the universe is such that it must have been 'deliberate'. For example the nature of water allows life to thrive on Earth. Also the strength of gravity and the distance between the Sun and the Earth. Note that I don't subscribe to this view.
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emilysiena
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The first part of Paley's Teleological Argument is Design Qua Purpose.
- In his book 'Natural Theology', he tells us about a man walking in a heath. He stops and finds a stone on the ground. The existence of the stone could easily be down to nature.
-He walks a bit further and finds a watch on the ground. He cannot dismiss the watch in the same way as the stone, due to the watch's complexity eg. the cogs, the wheels, the counterweights in the mechanism. The complexity of the watch is too intricate for it to have come about by sheer chance: it must have been designed, and it must have been designed for a purpose (to tell the time).
- In Natural Theology, he also observes animals' suitability to their environment. He gives the example of the earwig, saying 'the hinges of the wings of an earwig and the joints of its antennae are as highly wrought as if the Creator had nothing else to finish. We see no signs of diminution of care by multiplicity of objects, or of distraction of thought by variety.'
- For Paley, the earwig example shows that not only is everything clearly designed, but it is designed for a purpose with an infinite degree of care, from the example of the watch, to something of much less importance, like an earwig.
- This is considered evidence of intelligent design, and Paley considers this designer to be the Christian God.

Let me know if you have anymore questions
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Tangeton
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(Original post by 0mgJohn)
Yet again, I'm confused about the wording of many different sources with regards to the design argument. One of the features of said argument is that the universe displays "Purpose". This means that objects within the universe appear to be working towards an end or purpose.

But how is this known? What objects are doing this?

Sorry if it's a simple answer...
‘’Telos’’ in Greek means purpose, or a goal. This is why teteological arguments conclude that there must be a purpose for things to happen. The universe is regarded as having an end, goal or purpose. Purpose fallows a design, and so a designer.


Most noticeable examples of purpose are analogies of the watch and Aquinas' fifth way:

Paley's Watch

Payley uses the analogy of a watch to portray argument from design.

A man walks across a heath and finds a rock. He attributes the existence of the rock to nature. He walks further and stumbles across a watch. The man looks closely at the watch and notices it has several parts that work together for a purpose, to measure time, in a very complex way. If the there was any missing parts or the parts have been ordered differently the watch would not work. The watch therefore had all the evidence to say that it was in fact designed by a watch maker, as it could not have come by chance –


What Payley notices’ the similarities between the watch and the universe. The universe also consists of parts working together for a purpose, and the way these parts function is also complex. Paley summarises, that because the watch and the universe are similar in these aspects, they must also be similar in another, unobserved aspect, such as the fact that they were both designed. A watch needs a watch maker, and so a universe needs a universe maker; this must have been God.


Aquinas' fifth way

Aquitas has put through ways of arguing for God’s existence. The fifth way tries to prove the existence of God analogically through the use of observation of inanimate objects. Aquitas, through observation, concludes that every inanimate object has a purpose to fulfil in the universe. He also observes that these inanimate objects do not have the knowledge or the intelligence to reach that purpose by themselves, but need to be directed towards it.
This fallows the conclusion that everything that has a purpose must be carefully designed to do as instructed by a more intelligent and knowledgeable being, as it could not have happened on its own or by chance.
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