Could someone please mark this? Watch

maudeadams
Badges: 0
Rep:
?
#1
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#1
Outline and evaluate the learning theory of attachment (12 marks)
The learning theory proposes that attachment occurs through nurture and is therefore learned. The learning theory includes classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning occurs because food produces pleasure, according to the theory. The mother feeds the child, and the child gains a sense of pleasure from the food – the pleasure is thereafter associated with the mother too, thus an attachment is formed. Similarly, operant conditioning occurs because food is associated with reward. The hungry baby is fed by the mother, reducing his/her hunger drive – this is rewarding for the baby. The baby then cries whenever it’s hungry, and the mother responds to it to stop the annoying cries – attachment is then formed.
The learning theory provides a plausible explanation for attachment, but is reductionist as it ignores other factors such as love and comfort.
Research conducted by Harlow in the 1950s shows that there is more to attachment than food. Harlow had a group of young monkeys and placed them in a room with a wire feeding mother and a cloth comfort mother. He observed that the monkeys only visited the wire mother for food, and spent 17 hours a day clinging to the cloth mother, suggesting that comfort is a more important factor than food.
However, this experiment was conducted on animals and therefore may not be applied to human behaviour.
Another study conducted by Schaffer and Emerson in the 1960s showed that for 40% of the human infants observed, their primary attachment figure was not the one who fed/bathed them, but the only who was sensitive to their needs and also played with them. The babies were observed in the own homes so has high ecological validity. The study also shows that responsiveness has a part to play in attachment, disproving the learning theory.
The learning theory of attachment ignores Bowlby’s evolutionary theory in which he states that attachment is due to nature and is innate, whereas the learning theory states that attachment is learned through nurture. His theory is supported by the work of Konrad Lorenz, who hatched two groups of goslings. One group were segregated on their own, without a mother, the other group hatched next to Lorenz. The ones that hatched next to Lorenz followed him everywhere, assuming he was his mother. This shows that attachment may be due to nature, not nurture, as the baby geese had not been conditioned. The control group wandered aimlessly.
0
reply
maudeadams
Badges: 0
Rep:
?
#2
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#2
bump
0
reply
tgwktm
  • Study Helper
Badges: 18
Rep:
?
#3
Report 4 years ago
#3
(Original post by maudeadams)
Outline and evaluate the learning theory of attachment (12 marks)
The learning theory proposes that attachment occurs through nurture and is therefore learned. The learning theory includes classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning occurs because food produces pleasure, according to the theory. The mother feeds the child, and the child gains a sense of pleasure from the food – the pleasure is thereafter associated with the mother too, thus an attachment is formed. Similarly, operant conditioning occurs because food is associated with reward. The hungry baby is fed by the mother, reducing his/her hunger drive – this is rewarding for the baby. The baby then cries whenever it’s hungry, and the mother responds to it to stop the annoying cries – attachment is then formed.
The learning theory provides a plausible explanation for attachment, but is reductionist as it ignores other factors such as love and comfort.
Research conducted by Harlow in the 1950s shows that there is more to attachment than food. Harlow had a group of young monkeys and placed them in a room with a wire feeding mother and a cloth comfort mother. He observed that the monkeys only visited the wire mother for food, and spent 17 hours a day clinging to the cloth mother, suggesting that comfort is a more important factor than food.
However, this experiment was conducted on animals and therefore may not be applied to human behaviour.
Another study conducted by Schaffer and Emerson in the 1960s showed that for 40% of the human infants observed, their primary attachment figure was not the one who fed/bathed them, but the only who was sensitive to their needs and also played with them. The babies were observed in the own homes so has high ecological validity. The study also shows that responsiveness has a part to play in attachment, disproving the learning theory.
The learning theory of attachment ignores Bowlby’s evolutionary theory in which he states that attachment is due to nature and is innate, whereas the learning theory states that attachment is learned through nurture. His theory is supported by the work of Konrad Lorenz, who hatched two groups of goslings. One group were segregated on their own, without a mother, the other group hatched next to Lorenz. The ones that hatched next to Lorenz followed him everywhere, assuming he was his mother. This shows that attachment may be due to nature, not nurture, as the baby geese had not been conditioned. The control group wandered aimlessly.
i'd give it around 7/12 based on how my psychology teacher marks my essays (2/6 for description AO1 and 5/6 for evaluation AO2) in the description i would separate it into 2 paragraphs one for classical conditioning and one for operant conditioning. thr operant conditioning part you wrote is a lot better than the classical conditoning part. the classical conditioning part is correct but is too basic to get more marks. to improve this you need to include more terminology such as describing th stages of learning through the neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response and conditioned response. the evaluation is good, just make it clear what the studies say about the theory. a good way to do this is to add a sentence starting with the words 'this shows that' or 'this suggests that' to say what the study shows about the theory. i.e. whether it supports it or not.
hope this helps
0
reply
X

Quick Reply

Attached files
Write a reply...
Reply
new posts
Latest
My Feed

See more of what you like on
The Student Room

You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

Personalise

University open days

  • Edge Hill University
    Undergraduate and Postgraduate - Campus Tour Undergraduate
    Fri, 22 Mar '19
  • Birmingham City University
    Undergraduate Open Day Undergraduate
    Sat, 23 Mar '19
  • University of Bolton
    Undergraduate Open Day Undergraduate
    Sat, 23 Mar '19

Where do you need more help?

Which Uni should I go to? (91)
16.52%
How successful will I become if I take my planned subjects? (56)
10.16%
How happy will I be if I take this career? (98)
17.79%
How do I achieve my dream Uni placement? (84)
15.25%
What should I study to achieve my dream career? (54)
9.8%
How can I be the best version of myself? (168)
30.49%

Watched Threads

View All