What's the difference between ribosomal RNA and mRNA?
The difference between them is their roles: the mRNA is responsible for gene expression, that is to say the gene in form of DNA is transcribed, the mRNA 'read' the nucleobases, so a new RNA strand can be synthesised. The rRNA is built up to ribosomes where it comes to the synthesis of amino acids to proteins.
think about it logically, the letters in front of the rna gives a clue as to what each rna does,
M-rna stands for messenger rna and therefore is involved in transcription and translation, it acts as a messenger as it contains a code of a gene from dna, which then moves out of the nuclear pore to the ribosomes on the rer in the cytoplasm, now the ribosome is made up of 2 R-rna subunits, now this is why rrna is called rrna as it means ribosomal, as in in, it makes up the ribosome, rrna is the components of the ribosome, so to make it easier you could just say rrna is a ribosome. Transcription: the dna, unwinds and unzips by dipping into the nucleolus, (aided by enzyme helicase) free floating dna nucleotides are then added to the mrna strand (aided by dna or rna polymerase, not quite sure), which does not currently have any bases (code) on it, as each nucleotide is added on, it releases 2 phosphate groups, which provides energy for the enzyme (dna or rna polymerase) thus the process continues until the code has been transcribed (or copied, as transcribed means copy) the mrna strand is small so it can exit through nuclear pore, in order for the next process transcription, to take place.
during translation: the mrna strand reaches a ribosome, it fits in between the 2 ribosomal subunits, with the small ribosome unit (30s) on the bottom and the big ribosomal unit (50s) on top with the mrna in between them, kind of like a burger with a small bun on top (small ribosomal unit) a layer of cheese in the middle ( the mrna strand) and the large bun on top (the big ribosomal unit), so because the big unit is so big (the top bun is so big)you can fit 6 amino acids, 2 codons in the unit,(2 pieces of cheese in this bun) a codon is 3 amino acids basically, so then trna comes along, with a corresponding codon called an anti codon (located on the bottom of a trna like on the bottom of the letter t- lowercase t) and almost like a plug , when you put it into the socket, goes and plugs in on top of the big rrna unit and at the opposite end of the trna, (so on top of the letter t) an amino acid is formed and then the next trna comes along, does the same process so the 2 amino acids form a peptide bond and the trna dissociates, comes off the big rna unit as the ribosome moves along the strand, so basically the first trna dissociates and the second one is still attached to hold the newly formed peptide bond and hence the forming chain in place as the ribosome moves along the strand covering the next codon, so it can only go one code at a time which makes sense since it can hold 2 and move along one codon at a time since the previous codon with trna attached is still holding that forming chain in place, and then the process continues with more and more trna carrying anticodons to create the amino acid chains. until a primary structure is formed, which then bends and coils and folds and futher bends, coils and forms until a teriary or quaternary structure is made based on the protein that is intended to be made.