A-Level Geography 12/05/14 Unit 1 Mark SchemeWatch
Rivers-I reckon I got 25/60.
Hydrograph steep rising limb, high peak discharge, low lag time and reverse for other diagram and use figures.(4)-I reckon I got 4.
One Area had more woodland,didn't have impermeable surface,lower drainage density(+reasons why higher interception,higher abstraction lower throughflow, more infiltration, less probability of water falling in channel/takes water longer to get to channel increasing lag time, the area also had a lake that water could be stored in reducing water flowing into the river.(don't know which way round I did this question.(5)-I reckon I got 5.
Physical Factors-high rainfall hortonian overland flow reduced infiltration Dams discharging loads of water human factors.Physical necessary for event to happen but human factors made it worse+Figures.(6)-I reckon I got 5.
Soft Engineering-Soakaways,Wetlands,Flood Proof,Afforestation,Weather Forecast,River Restoration etc(Ad:increase infiltration, allow water to fill up area, allow basement to flood/stairs to house/stilts,increase infiltration/abstraction reducing throughflow + interception+ increase channel capacity,warn people allow people to put sandbags on home, reverse straightening of the channel prevent flooding downstream).I did the Advantages as what they are because thats the point basically(DisAd:Makes surfaces slippy decreased friction, wastes land for housing,wastes money used to build basement/stilts could be eroded,wastes area again/in storms trees could fall in and cause rise in river levels,wastes straightening money and causes flooding in channel where straightening has been reversed.(I forgot a really obvious disadvantage of weather forecast that if it is wrong then people may not listen to them when there is a real flood but I struggled for time anyway).Case Study:Abingdon(Soakaways),Carlis le(Weather Forecast)-Don't worry I did about 2 points of Case Study.Soft Engineering works with natural environment using natural materials to reduce impacts of flooding.Soft Engineering only reduces impacts so only really useful for parks/farming not really industry/housing-I reckon I got 11.
Coasts-I reckon I got 23/30.
Fetch,Wind Direction and Wind Duration cause constructive/destructive waves destructive more energy cause a lot of erosion(backwash) less deposition(swash) etc.High Tide transportation of larger sediment more erosion deposition at back of beach.Wave Refraction causes lots of erosion at headland due to converging wave trains and diverging at bays causing deposition.(4)-I reckon I got 4.
(TOUGH QUESTION-NOT SURE IF RIGHT)Wind Direction determines direction of swash moving up beach and Longshore Drift moves sediment between sediment cells, rivers divide sections into separate sediment cells(was it just one sediment cell though?) preventing further depositon beyond the rivers.(4)-please clarify-I reckon I got 1.
Soft Engineeringune Regeneration/fencing off dunes to prevent people damaging them(vegetation traps sand prevents wind from taking it off beach),Wetland creation(Coastal Retreat),Beach Nourishment(Dredging offshore).Case Study:Blackwater Estuary(retreating sea walls to flood area)(7/)-please clarify-I reckon I got 5.
Description:Beaches:wide or narrow very thin at front of the coast made of sand and shingle at front and pebbles at back Spitlongated made of sand/shingle, curved end, extend off beach into river mouth.Bars extend from one coastline to another, made of sand and shingle.
Explanation:Beaches(wave refraction causes diverging wave trains causing deposition producing a beach in a bay, high tides cause large sediment at back of beach and low tides create ridges at front of the beach),Spit(beach extends off headland with longshore drift as coastline changes until river stops it eroding any further deposition,curved end due to prevailing wind direction),Bar(Spit extends onto other coastline leaving sheltered lagoon).Case Studyeaburn Beach(Make up any local beach)(Beach),Spit(Spurn Head/Point,Holderness),failed to get a Bar Case study sorry-I reckon I got 13.
Population-I reckon I got 21/30.
Infant Mortality Rate is the number of deaths of children under age 1 per thousand live births per year.(2)-I reckon I got 2.
Infant Mortality Rate is a good indicator because it is low in developed countries due to advanced medical care(example of surgery not necessary but I put prevent baby choking on saliva seen it on documentary),sanitation,diet(nut rients for children),sterilisation etc.(3)-I reckon I got 3.
In general life expectancy increased for men from 1992 to 2006(don't remember numbers) particularly in Scotland increases in London too, same for women and Scotland with very high life expectancy spreading northwards and some south England places having very very high life expectancy(so hard without numbers I think 86+), an anomaly region in south west Scotland that didn't increase.(4)-I reckon I got 3.
Political Impacts of growing life expectancy are need to increase retirement age, up taxes on working people.Social Impacts people can't have children to look after elderly relatives,grandparents get to see grandchildren for longer,trouble for young people buying house, reduces independence(sort of economic but still social).(6)-I reckon I got 4.
Population Change is caused by either birth rate>death rate or opposite or migration rates and youthening/ageing population are caused by the same thing.Population Increase in Rural Areas leads to reduction in green space, overcrowding, damaging of nature trails etc etc increases number of services to isolated areas like St Johns
Chapel.Population Increase in Urban Areas will lead to increased unemployment/ more people on JSA. Ageing Population in Rural lead to less unemployment but reduction in services and less fossil fuel usage due to no need to drive a car because retired people don't work.Youthening Population in Urban causes unemployment, more people on JSA, more revenue at music concerts, higher housing prices for flats/terraced housing.I have got some of the points in here but I'm all over the place on this question sorry.I also had the case study Heighington in here somewhere were people move to rural and commute to work/supermarkets and I talked about building of schools in Rural Areas.I concluded that it depends what change in population is occurring and in respect to who whether it is good or bad-I reckon I got 9.
Energy-I reckon I got 24/30.
Cooperation in Geopolitics is agreeing the same price for an import/export eg.OPEC setting same price so there is little conflict over rising fossil fuel prices.(2)-I reckon I got 2.
REALLY TOUGH QUESTION(not sure if right)Conflicts in the figure are that Barack Obama thought BP should be responsible but David Cameron helped out anyway, BP didn't want to sack Chief Executive Officer and BP's sales started rising after leakage fixed even though those environmental damage/11 people died indicating how BP only really cares about getting the Oil going again.(5)-I reckon I got 2.
Renewable Energy resources increased generally(figures) but hydroelectric didn't.Hydroelectric increased(2008 to 2009 which is an anomaly).Manipulated the figures into some percentages.(4)-I reckon I got 3.
Solar Power Panels can get dirty, don't work as well in cloudy conditions/night, very expensive, not very attractive(visual pollution)(4)-I reckon I got 4.
Transportation can be made more sustainable through many ways(really should have included a definition of sustainability here(Sustainability is meeting the needs of the present without infringing on the needs of the future).I included several methods like congestion charges in London/high taxation in Norway for fossil fuels, encouraging cycling(with cycle lanes and congestion charges energy comes from cyclist so no fossil fuel usage),using ethanol+petrol to reduce fossil fuel usage in Brazil carbon dioxide emissions reduced because plants use up carbon dioxide as they grow,solar powered vehicle but low speed 10km/h and issues at night can be solved using solar battery, limpet,scotland scheme producing hydrogen buses a negative is that hydrogen has to be made from electricity so only sustainable if from HEP like in Limpet, reducing bus price so that energy usage reduced because less fossil fuels consumed per person/(more holidays using coach/boat not areoplane due to areoplanes depleting ozone which protects from skin cancer by stopping ultraviolet radiation).Overall I said that transport can be sustainable but that in order to do so you must be prepared to travel at lower speeds-I reckon I got 13.
After reviewing the exam there were three hard questions the Coasts sediment cell transportation, the Geopolitics graph questions and the population 15 marker, which wasn't that bad due to a similar question appearing before.I think due to the lack of need for case studies except to get into level 3 I wouldn't expect grade boundaries to be too low but the ridiculous amount of figures would have made timing issues that I really suffered even worse and in general the whole exam was reasonable but harder than June 13 so about A-70 B-64 C-58 D-52 E-46.
I reckon I got 93/120 but the examiners will probably be a lot harsher but I should get an A, which is very pleasing considering I got a D in the January Mock and had to be part of the group resitting the mocks whilst the rest did well in the mock in January.
You had that much time to waste I completed all questions with about a minute to go but had to have another look over the Geopolitics section but didn't work out anything else to write maybe I should have wrote more for the questions I rushed.
No i only had like 3 minutes which i barely went through my health section after finishing. I just liked the 7 marker on coasts and also 15 marker for coasts. i wrote elaborately about sand dunes, salt marsh and a little about spits. No case studies though :/ Would it be possible to reach level 3 without one for that section or only be level 2?