Conditions for Ox/Reduction of Ketones and Aldehydes

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Mr Burns
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Hello!

There's something my textbook doesn't cover and it's for an entrance exam so I need to know soon as possible Image

1) The conditions for the oxidation of ketones and 2) aldehydes

3) The conditions for the reduction of ketones and 4) aldehydes

I hope this isn't too much to ask, I tried reading it up online, but there's a lot I don't need to know, I just need reagents and conditions. I would really appreciate the help!
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Picture~Perfect
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(Original post by Mr Burns)
Hello!

There's something my textbook doesn't cover and it's for an entrance exam so I need to know soon as possible Image

1) The conditions for the oxidation of ketones and 2) aldehydes

3) The conditions for the reduction of ketones and 4) aldehydes

I hope this isn't too much to ask, I tried reading it up online, but there's a lot I don't need to know, I just need reagents and conditions. I would really appreciate the help!
Aldehydes and Ketones are oxidised with one of two oxidising agents either hot acidified potassium permanganate or hot acidified potassium dichromate and the conditions are heat. i.e K2Cr2O7/H+/heat or KMnO4/H+/heat.

There are several possibilities for reduction you could use, hydrogen and a catalyst which can be platinum or nickel (H2/Pt), or you could use a metal hydride such as lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) and if you want to completely reduce them down to their corresponding alkanes you would use zinc amalgam (Zn/Hg) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl).

I hope that helps
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Mr Burns
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(Original post by Picture~Perfect)
Aldehydes and Ketones are oxidised with one of two oxidising agents either hot acidified potassium permanganate or hot acidified potassium dichromate and the conditions are heat. i.e K2Cr2O7/H+/heat or KMnO4/H+/heat.

There are several possibilities for reduction you could use, hydrogen and a catalyst which can be platinum or nickel (H2/Pt), or you could use a metal hydride such as lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) and if you want to completely reduce them down to their corresponding alkanes you would use zinc amalgam (Zn/Hg) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl).

I hope that helps
Well that's perfect, you rock! Thank you!
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Nabihah
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I thought its not possible to oxidise ketones :/ but you can oxidise aldehydes using reflux with acidified Potassium dichromate. or using tollens reagent to oxidise aldehydes to make a carboyllic acid and the observation is a silver mirror.

You can reduce an aaldehyde into a primary alcohol using aqueous NaBH4 (aq)
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SachinNeedsHelp
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(Original post by Picture~Perfect)
Aldehydes and Ketones are oxidised with one of two oxidising agents either hot acidified potassium permanganate or hot acidified potassium dichromate and the conditions are heat. i.e K2Cr2O7/H+/heat or KMnO4/H+/heat.

There are several possibilities for reduction you could use, hydrogen and a catalyst which can be platinum or nickel (H2/Pt), or you could use a metal hydride such as lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4) and if you want to completely reduce them down to their corresponding alkanes you would use zinc amalgam (Zn/Hg) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl).

I hope that helps
But conditions have to be under reflux and stuff, for carboxylic.acids its different to aldehydes. Its hard to explain over words tryin looking for picture of the reflux.apparatus? Chem guide is a good website.
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MP2205
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For oxidation, if there are no hydrogens attached to the carbon which has the hydroxide group then it can't be oxidised
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Picture~Perfect
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(Original post by Mr Burns)
Well that's perfect, you rock! Thank you!
Your welcome, good luck with your studies

I forgot to mention it in my post but as someone pointed out, ketones can not be further oxidised.
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