blossomx
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I think it would be easier to discuss all our questions here instead as the other thread moves so fast lol.
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blossomx
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Ok so this is what I have at the moment, what do you guys think:

Outline the classical conditioning explanation of simple learning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Pavlov found that an innate salivatory reflex to food placed on the tongue can be effected by experience and so saliva producton can occur before food is placed in mouth.

⦁ Classical conditioning results in a stimulus which previously didn't produce a response (a neutral stimuli) producing a conditioned response. This is acquired by paring a neutral stimuli repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus (a stimuli which triggers an automatic reflex, is unlearned).

⦁ Before conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus will produce an unconditioned response. Whilst the neutral stimulus will prooduce no response. However, after repeatedly pairing, the NS eventually becomes conditioned and it now produces a conditioned response.

⦁ The strongest conditioning results from presenting the NS just before and along with the UCS.

⦁ If the CS is presented with no UCS, the conditioning will eventually decrease - exinction. The CR may, however, suddenly reappear without pairing the UCS and CS. This process is known as spontaneous recovery.

⦁ Classical conditioning also has stimuli generalisation. This is where stimuli which is similar to the CS elicits the CR. However, as no UCS is presented animals will display stimuli discrimination where they only elicit the CR to a narrower range of stimuli.

AO2 is: Skinner, Matthews, Garcia
IDAs: Ignores nature (Seligman) and ethics makes it difficult to validate


Outline the operant conditioning explanation of simple learning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Thorndike's law of positive effect states that any behaviour which is followed by a pleasurable outcome is more likely to be repeated. He based this on a study of cats in puzzle boxes whereby cats had to operate a latch to get food. At first, the cats took a long time. However, this became faster after many trials. Thorndike identified this as trial and error learning; the more trials, the less errors there will be.

⦁ Skinner said that there were two types of reinforcement: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement encourages behaviour by producing a pleasant response. Whereas negative reinforcement removes aversive stimuli. When either reinforcement is removed, the behaviour will undergo extinction and will occur less frequently until it stops completely. Variable ratio and variable interval have the slowest extinction. This is when behaviour is not reinforced everytime but after a varying amount of times. After extinction, behaviour may resume again even without further reinforcement, this is known as spontaneous recovery.

AO2: Skinner's rats, Agetsuma, Clay
IDAs: Real-life application (PRT in labs to improve well-being of animals in research) and ignores nature (Breland and Breland)


Outline the role of classical conditioning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Animals need to learn to adapt to their environment to meet the challenges of new circumstances to ensure survival. New stimuli (neutral stimuli) can conditioned to produce a conditioned response when paired with an unconditioned stimuli. It is through this that dangerous or harmful stimuli is learnt to be avoided and positive stimuli is conditioned to be associated with positive feelings.

⦁ For example, animals may learn to associate fear with a new stimulus if it's paired with a predator (UCS). Therefore they will learn to fear the new stimulus even when it's not paired with a predetor until it no longer poses a risk and then extinction will occur.

⦁ Classical conditioning can also be useful in foraging. If a source of food (NS) is harmful, it will produce a response such as vomiting (UCR). The animals will then learn that the food, now a CR, is unsafe and will therefore avoid it in the future. This has been demonstrated by research in laboratory and natural settings.

⦁ Classical conditioning is also used in hunting. They will associate particular behaviours and locations (NS) with feelings of satiation (UCR) and so will learn to associate the behaviours that lead to the positive hunting outcome and will therefore repeat it.

Evaluation is exactly the same as the previous essay:
AO2 is: Skinner, Matthews, Garcia
IDAs: Ignores nature (Seligman) and ethics makes it difficult to validate


Outline the role of operant conditioning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Operant conditioning allows animals to interact with their environment and by trial and error learning, shape behaviour via reinforcement and punishment processes. Behaviour will be repeated if it results in positive stimuli (positive reinforcement) or it removes aversive stimuli (negative reinforcement).

⦁ Operant conditioning helps animals in foraging. If they find food (reward) by displaying certain behaviours or by being in certain locations then positive reinforcement will occur and they will repeat the behaviour or remain in that area until it is no longer effective eg the supply diminishes as extinction will occur.

⦁ Operant conditioning also occurs during hunting. The act of hunting and making a kill is positively reinforced by feelings of satiation. It is also negatively reinforced by removing negative stimuli such as hunger. Therefore the behaviour will be repeated and reinforced.

AO2: Skinner's rats, Agetsuma, Clay
IDAs: Real-life application (PRT in labs to improve well-being of animals in research) and ignores nature (Breland and Breland)


Literally no idea what I'm doing lol.
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Islam2014
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(Original post by LeaX)
Ok so this is what I have at the moment, what do you guys think:

Outline the classical conditioning explanation of simple learning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Pavlov found that an innate salivatory reflex to food placed on the tongue can be effected by experience and so saliva producton can occur before food is placed in mouth.

⦁ Classical conditioning results in a stimulus which previously didn't produce a response (a neutral stimuli) producing a conditioned response. This is acquired by paring a neutral stimuli repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus (a stimuli which triggers an automatic reflex, is unlearned).

⦁ Before conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus will produce an unconditioned response. Whilst the neutral stimulus will prooduce no response. However, after repeatedly pairing, the NS eventually becomes conditioned and it now produces a conditioned response.

⦁ The strongest conditioning results from presenting the NS just before and along with the UCS.

⦁ If the CS is presented with no UCS, the conditioning will eventually decrease - exinction. The CR may, however, suddenly reappear without pairing the UCS and CS. This process is known as spontaneous recovery.

⦁ Classical conditioning also has stimuli generalisation. This is where stimuli which is similar to the CS elicits the CR. However, as no UCS is presented animals will display stimuli discrimination where they only elicit the CR to a narrower range of stimuli.

AO2 is: Skinner, Matthews, Garcia
IDAs: Ignores nature (Seligman) and ethics makes it difficult to validate


Outline the operant conditioning explanation of simple learning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Thorndike's law of positive effect states that any behaviour which is followed by a pleasurable outcome is more likely to be repeated. He based this on a study of cats in puzzle boxes whereby cats had to operate a latch to get food. At first, the cats took a long time. However, this became faster after many trials. Thorndike identified this as trial and error learning; the more trials, the less errors there will be.

⦁ Skinner said that there were two types of reinforcement: positive and negative. Positive reinforcement encourages behaviour by producing a pleasant response. Whereas negative reinforcement removes aversive stimuli. When either reinforcement is removed, the behaviour will undergo extinction and will occur less frequently until it stops completely. Variable ratio and variable interval have the slowest extinction. This is when behaviour is not reinforced everytime but after a varying amount of times. After extinction, behaviour may resume again even without further reinforcement, this is known as spontaneous recovery.

AO2: Skinner's rats, Agetsuma, Clay
IDAs: Real-life application (PRT in labs to improve well-being of animals in research) and ignores nature (Breland and Breland)


Outline the role of classical conditioning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Animals need to learn to adapt to their environment to meet the challenges of new circumstances to ensure survival. New stimuli (neutral stimuli) can conditioned to produce a conditioned response when paired with an unconditioned stimuli. It is through this that dangerous or harmful stimuli is learnt to be avoided and positive stimuli is conditioned to be associated with positive feelings.

⦁ For example, animals may learn to associate fear with a new stimulus if it's paired with a predator (UCS). Therefore they will learn to fear the new stimulus even when it's not paired with a predetor until it no longer poses a risk and then extinction will occur.

⦁ Classical conditioning can also be useful in foraging. If a source of food (NS) is harmful, it will produce a response such as vomiting (UCR). The animals will then learn that the food, now a CR, is unsafe and will therefore avoid it in the future. This has been demonstrated by research in laboratory and natural settings.

⦁ Classical conditioning is also used in hunting. They will associate particular behaviours and locations (NS) with feelings of satiation (UCR) and so will learn to associate the behaviours that lead to the positive hunting outcome and will therefore repeat it.

Evaluation is exactly the same as the previous essay:
AO2 is: Skinner, Matthews, Garcia
IDAs: Ignores nature (Seligman) and ethics makes it difficult to validate


Outline the role of operant conditioning in the behaviour of non-human animals
Spoiler:
Show
AO1:
⦁ Operant conditioning allows animals to interact with their environment and by trial and error learning, shape behaviour via reinforcement and punishment processes. Behaviour will be repeated if it results in positive stimuli (positive reinforcement) or it removes aversive stimuli (negative reinforcement).

⦁ Operant conditioning helps animals in foraging. If they find food (reward) by displaying certain behaviours or by being in certain locations then positive reinforcement will occur and they will repeat the behaviour or remain in that area until it is no longer effective eg the supply diminishes as extinction will occur.

⦁ Operant conditioning also occurs during hunting. The act of hunting and making a kill is positively reinforced by feelings of satiation. It is also negatively reinforced by removing negative stimuli such as hunger. Therefore the behaviour will be repeated and reinforced.

AO2: Skinner's rats, Agetsuma, Clay
IDAs: Real-life application (PRT in labs to improve well-being of animals in research) and ignores nature (Breland and Breland)


Literally no idea what I'm doing lol.

That looks good, i always had a problem with linking the learning theories with intelligence, This is the last essay i have to learn before going over all the stuff again and been on it for the past 3 hours :confused:

And i don't have most of the research you've mentioned in my text book
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blossomx
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(Original post by Islam2014)
That looks good, i always had a problem with linking the learning theories with intelligence, This is the last essay i have to learn before going over all the stuff again and been on it for the past 3 hours :confused:

And i don't have most of the research you've mentioned in my text book
yeah the research i use is from like three different textbooks lol and do you mean information processing and psychometric?
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yeah the research i use is from like three different textbooks lol and do you mean information processing and psychometric?

Oh no Sorry i meant classical and operant conditioning.

Which text books do you use?
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blossomx
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(Original post by Islam2014)
Oh no Sorry i meant classical and operant conditioning.

Which text books do you use?
the blue aqa book
the complete companion
the mini companion
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ivy.stanton53
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your essay plans look really good! But do you not have any reaserch in the 3rd essay that links to the A01 you have talked about (foraging and hunting)? And would you not briefly explain what classical conditioning is?
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blossomx
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(Original post by ivy.stanton53)
your essay plans look really good! But do you not have any reaserch in the 3rd essay that links to the A01 you have talked about (foraging and hunting)? And would you not briefly explain what classical conditioning is?
for foraging i have taste aversion (garcia) but i don't have any for hunting i have even looked through google scholar and can't find many studies for classical and operant conditioning in animals

btw this site shows all the previous questions, as you can see the theories of intelligence (psychometric, info processing) and genetics and evolutionary factors has come up quite a lot, so i reckon this may come up :'''''''(
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ivy.stanton53
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(Original post by LeaX)
for foraging i have taste aversion (garcia) but i don't have any for hunting i have even looked through google scholar and can't find many studies for classical and operant conditioning in animals

btw this site shows all the previous questions, as you can see the theories of intelligence (psychometric, info processing) and genetics and evolutionary factors has come up quite a lot, so i reckon this may come up :'''''''(
Ah right, yeah same here. Tell you what we should do. Put all out best information together and come up with the perfect A* essay plan? Obviously we would write it differently in the exam if it came up but just the plan?
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blossomx
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(Original post by ivy.stanton53)
Ah right, yeah same here. Tell you what we should do. Put all out best information together and come up with the perfect A* essay plan? Obviously we would write it differently in the exam if it came up but just the plan?
yess! that would be really good did you want to do that for all four of the conditioning essays? did you want to do it in this thread or by pm?
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ivy.stanton53
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yess! that would be really good did you want to do that for all four of the conditioning essays? did you want to do it in this thread or by pm?
Lets do it here, well i think both our operant and classical ones are pretty good so i think we should focus on the animal ones ??
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blossomx
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Ok, so how should we do it?

I've posted up mine but I'm going to spend some time looking on different websites for anymore information. Do you have a copy of your two essays for animal behaviour?
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Islam2014
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In the exam would you put the like classical conditioning essay and classical conditioning in animal behaviours together and same with operant
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blossomx
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In the exam would you put the like classical conditioning essay and classical conditioning in animal behaviours together and same with operant
no
i'm pretty sure they can ask for any of the four essays i've written about above

the only conditioning question they have ever asked is an 8 mark Q on "Outline key features of classical conditioning"

the mark scheme says:
"Features of Pavlovian classical conditioning include reflexive unconditioned responses, such
as salivation, to unconditioned stimuli such as food; paired presentation of unconditioned
neutral stimulus (eg bell) with the unconditioned stimulus; development of the conditioned
response to the neutral stimulus. Other features such as forwards/backwards conditioning,
extinction, stimulus generalisation and discrimination, and spontaneous recovery would also
be relevant. Note that for marks in the top band answers should be accurate and well
detailed.
To move beyond Basic, in addition to an accurate outline of the basic Pavlovian paradigm
there should be reference to one or more additional features. "

so it's different to the role of it in behaviour
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blossomx
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I found a document which had the question
"Outline and evaluate the role of classical and operant conditioning in animal learning. (25 marks)"

and the mark scheme said:
The command term ‘discuss’ means to outline and evaluate. Eight marks would be available here for the description of simple learning and its role in the behaviour of non-human animals, which therefore should be longer and more detailed than if only
4 marks were on offer. This could be achieved by reference to classical and operant conditioning, going beyond mere description of the Pavlovian paradigm to include additional features, such as extinction and discrimination, and for operant conditioning by reference to features such as behaviour shaping and reinforcement schedules. Evaluation could include what research evidence has informed us about simple learning and its role in the behaviour of non-human animals, plus other relevant material, such as how the role of cognitive factors and social learning is underplayed. IDA material could include ethical considerations of experimentation on animals, plus possible practical applications, like the training of animals.

So I don't know if they're separate essays and I'm not sure how credible the above source is, it might not even be the same exam board. Is anyone able to get hold of their teacher this week to clarify? My college email system is down otherwise I would email my teacher and ask what she thinks.
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Most resources I've found don't even talk about the role... they only outline the process and evaluate with animal studies, the only one I've found with the role is this one from here:


The Role of Simple Learning in the Behaviour of Non-Human Animals

Classical Conditioning:

Animals use classical condition to learn about their environment and adapt to changing environments.
Research in laboratory and natural settings demonstrates classical conditioning being used by animals to learn whether food sources are safe to eat.
One-trial learning is a form of classical conditioning where one pairing of a CS with a UCS is enough to produce a CR.
Sleigman proposed the idea of biological preparedness, where some associations are learned more readily, as an animal is biologically predisposed to do so.
These behaviours are adaptive and bestow a survival value.
Research for Classical Conditioning:

Sahley et al (1981) - exposed slugs just once to a highly attractive food odour of potato or carrot and a saturated solution of guanidine sulphate, a bitter-tasting plant substance. The slugs subsequently displayed reduced preference for that specific food odour, demonstrating one-trial learning in non-human animals.
Garcia et al (1990) - found that taste aversion occur naturally, as wolves and coyotes made ill by being fed mutton laced with lithium chloride refused to approach live sheep and instead displayed submissive behaviour, rolling onthi their backs to expose their stomach.
Curtis et al (1999) - created squirrel-proof birdseed. Birdseed was coasted in chilli pepper, which is inpleasent to squirrels in taste and smell. The squirrels quickly learned to avoid it, but birds having no capsaicin receptors, cannot be conditioned to avoid the birdseed and continued to eat it.
Operant Conditioning

Operant conditioning allows animals to interact with their environment and by trial and error learning, shape behaviour via reinforcement and punishment process.
An example of this is finding food and avoiding danger - if an animal exhibit behaviour with no pleasurable outcome, such as a bear continually jumping into a rive, but failing to catch fish, this reduces the chances that the behaviour will be exhibited again.
However if this exhibited behaviour has a pleasurable outcome, it is more likely to be exhibited again - for example, the bear putting its head, open-mouthed, underwater and successfully catching fish.
These behaviours are aquired are adapted and bestow a survival behaviour, because if it is successful, the animal is more likely to repeat it and if it is unsuccessful, then they will be less likely to repeat it and find a new way.
It is also much easier for animals to learn behaviours similar to innate ones thane aquiring behaviours dissimilar to natural ones.
Research for Operant Conditioning:

Wehner et al (1996) - reported how desert ants learn by trial and error to use landmarks when navigating within a familiar area, demonstrating importance of operant conditioning in the behaviour of non-human animals.
Fisher and Hinde (1949) - reported how blue tits pecked holes in the foil tops of milk bottles to comsume the cream, seemed that the birds learned this purely by imitation, which is back up but the fact that the behaviour spread through the blue tit population. Howver, blue tits probably found it easier to aquire this behaviour because its similar to their natural tendency to strip tree bark to find grubs to eat, demonstrating how it is easier for animals to learn behaviours similiar to innate ones.
Evaluation on Animal Learning:

Reseach shows that both classical and operant conditioning play important powerful roles in animal learning, such as foraging and navigation.
Classical conditioning associates new stimuli with exsisting repsonses, but animals often learn new responses in repsonse to their environment, so classical conditioning cannot fully explain how animals learn.
Operant conditioning can explain new behaviours as learned by their consequences.
Behaviourist explainations of learning ignore the role of cognititve thought processes. Kohler (1925) reported how chimpanzees used insight learning to eat bananas. A banana some distance outside the cage was reached by the use of a stick found in the cage, a behaviour which was not taught or previously witnessed by any other chimp and so solving this problem required not conditioning, but instead insight into a problem and its solution by the use of coginitive processes which operant and classical conditioning doesn't explain.
As well as classical and operant conditioning, animals use social learning, via observation and imitation, to learn about and interact wiht their environment.
Behaviourism cannot explain latent learning, where learning occurs, without reinforcement. Tolman (1930) found that rats learned to navigate a maze without being rewarded, but only showed this learning when given the motivation of a reward.
Behavourism cannot account for innate influences, like biological preparedness and instictive drift.
Issues, Debates and Approaches:

The emphasis in behaviourism of the environment's role in shaping behaviour can be considered reductionist, as only stimuli, responses and consequences of responses are considered. Behaviourism sees no role for unseen mental process and does not consider biological influences, which research indicates to be important, like biological preparedness and instinctive drift.
Much research into simple animals is performed on animals and this incurs ethical considerations, like the health and welfare of animals being tested and the justification of such research in cost-benefit terms.
Some uses of conditioning may be unethical, like training animals for warfare.
Findings from research into classical and operant conditioning suggests practical applications for domestic and wild animals, like the training of dogs.
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blossomx
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idk why it posted twice lol
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ivy.stanton53
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(Original post by LeaX)
Ok, so how should we do it?

I've posted up mine but I'm going to spend some time looking on different websites for anymore information. Do you have a copy of your two essays for animal behaviour?
Animals can be classically conditioned by environmental factors, causing them to create an association between two stimuli. One example is how captive animals are trained prior to release in oder to make them less dependable on humans. For example through simple conditioning captive dolphins form an association between the presence of humans (CS) and the food reward (UCS.) However this simple learning could put them in danger if they were ever released into the wild as they would highly depend on humans to present food. To reduce this dependability a simple conditioning method could be paired with a compound conditioned stimulus. For example human presence could be combined with a more appropriate stimulus such as an auditory signal (compound CS), the animal will hopefully begin to associate the signal with food, overshadowing the human presence, which in turn makes them less reliable on humans if they were to be released.

This is supported by Kleiman who found that lions learned to associate the sound of an opening backpack zipper with the presence of food, but not with the humans themselves. This sound was a more reliable predictor of food and therefore overshadowed the association of food and human presence.

Classical conditioning can also be useful in foraging. If a source of food (NS) is harmful, it will produce a response such as vomiting (UCR). The animals will then learn that the food, now a CR, is unsafe and will therefore avoid it in the future. This is known as taste aversion and is supported by (NEED EVIDENCE)??

thats my a01 but im stuck on a02/3


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ivy.stanton53
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Ah thats get good evidence for taste aversion which is great!
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(Original post by ivy.stanton53)
Animals can be classically conditioned by environmental factors, causing them to create an association between two stimuli. One example is how captive animals are trained prior to release in oder to make them less dependable on humans. For example through simple conditioning captive dolphins form an association between the presence of humans (CS) and the food reward (UCS.) However this simple learning could put them in danger if they were ever released into the wild as they would highly depend on humans to present food. To reduce this dependability a simple conditioning method could be paired with a compound conditioned stimulus. For example human presence could be combined with a more appropriate stimulus such as an auditory signal (compound CS), the animal will hopefully begin to associate the signal with food, overshadowing the human presence, which in turn makes them less reliable on humans if they were to be released.

This is supported by Kleiman who found that lions learned to associate the sound of an opening backpack zipper with the presence of food, but not with the humans themselves. This sound was a more reliable predictor of food and therefore overshadowed the association of food and human presence.

Classical conditioning can also be useful in foraging. If a source of food (NS) is harmful, it will produce a response such as vomiting (UCR). The animals will then learn that the food, now a CR, is unsafe and will therefore avoid it in the future. This is known as taste aversion and is supported by (NEED EVIDENCE)??

thats my a01 but im stuck on a02/3


So for classical should be do a split so we'll have half about its role in the lab (what you just wrote about) and half about the wild (foraging). Also what about reproductive success (Matthews et al) or should we leave that out?

Research for foraging, I've found these:
Sahley et al (1981) - exposed slugs just once to a highly attractive food odour of potato or carrot and a saturated solution of guanidine sulphate, a bitter-tasting plant substance. The slugs subsequently displayed reduced preference for that specific food odour, demonstrating one-trial learning in non-human animals.
Garcia et al (1990) - found that taste aversion occur naturally, as wolves and coyotes made ill by being fed mutton laced with lithium chloride refused to approach live sheep and instead displayed submissive behaviour, rolling onthi their backs to expose their stomach.
Curtis et al (1999) - created squirrel-proof birdseed. Birdseed was coasted in chilli pepper, which is inpleasent to squirrels in taste and smell. The squirrels quickly learned to avoid it, but birds having no capsaicin receptors, cannot be conditioned to avoid the birdseed and continued to eat it.
- Garcia et al - found when rats were fed a novel food paired with an emetic (vomit-inducing substance) they avoided it in the future
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