I'll give you an example of an essay plan answering: 'Discuss the cognitive approach. Compare with the psychodynamic approach'.
Firstly, you'll need to outline the cognitive approach -- these are a few AO1s you can pick up:
• Thought mediates between stimulus and response
• Information processing approach
• Mind works similarly to a computer -- hardware=brain, software=processing/personality
• Use of models e.g. multi-store model
• Mental processes can be scientifically studied
• The human mind actively processes
Elaboration of each point is necessary! For example:
The cognitive approach assumes incoming stimuli from the senses is processed in the conscious in order to produce a chosen response. The processing between stimuli and response is referred to as the mediating processes which occur in the brain/conscious. Cognitive psychologists scientifically study the mediating processes e.g. language, memory, reasoning, etc, because they believe these processes are responsible for all behaviour.
Here are some comparison points to pick up AO2s:
Conscious logical thinkers / focus on unconscious thought (though conscious level is acknowledged)
Both agree stages of gender development in early years
Information processing approach and little focus on emotions / focus on emotional life and childhood experience
Damage to brain and mental processes as explanation of atypical behaviour / repression and unconscious conflict
Behaviour is rational / irrational;
Active processing and an element of free will / individual is passive and behaviour is determined
Here's another example but of a comparison point:
The psychodynamic approach, on the other hand, believes human behaviour is motivated by unconscious impulses which are beyond the awareness of the conscious mind. Freud suggested the (unconscious) ID constantly battles with the (conscious) ego. By contrast, the cognitive approach has little consideration for the unconscious mind when explaining behaviour, and instead suggests the conscious mind responsible for behaviour.
I think this would be enough for a AO2 mark, although I didn't include evidence (studies). They are always credited so it would be good to include one to back up your explanations!
Studies to demonstrate unconscious urges shaping behaviour:
- Case study of Jane Doe (unconscious repression)
- Case study of Little Hans (unconscious gender development)
I'm not sure whether you gain marks for evaluating your evidence, but it seems reasonable to assume so