Arithmeticae's Unofficial BL1HP Mark Scheme Watch

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Hey there guys. This is my attempt at creating a (hopefully correct) bank of solution for the GCSE AQA B1 paper sat by a lot of us today.

Just a couple of things to clarify:

I don't do requests. Don't bother wasting your time.
No one's saying these are 100% correct, they're just what I've seen to be true and what I thought was right. If there's any problems you can spot, feel free to quote me in on them
These are by no means the only correct answers. If you think there are alternative correct solutions, just quote me and I'll edit them in

Now we've got all that out of the way, here we go!

The Answers


Question 1

1a) Triangle with grass at base, sheep in middle and human at the top.
1bi) C
1bii) There are less trophic levels, which means that there are less intermediate processes and less energy will be lost through cell growth and repair, heating and movement of the animals and respiration. In addition to this, less biomass will be lost as there are less waste products from animals (e.g. urea, faeces etc.)


Question 2

2)
In dry conditions, both animals and plants must have suitable adaptations in order to survive in their environment.

Some animals such as the desert fox have a large surface area to volume ratio in order to maximize the loss of heat. In addition to this, they also have large ears in order to increase heat loss through radiation. The camel has a hump which allows it to store water and fat so so it can go long periods without water, which is scarce in dry environments.

The cactus plant also lives in dry conditions, and can store water over long periods of time. Furthermore, it doesn't have any leaves in order to minimize water loss which is essential in dry conditions. Finally, it has wide spreading roots in order to find water from distant locations and increase the amount of water it can take in.


Question 3

3a) When the dead plants decay, decomposers such as microorganisms and bacteria break them down. They then go on to perform aerobic respiration which is an exothermic reaction and releases heat energy, thus heating the eggs.
3bi) The air vents must be opened and closed in order to allow heat to escape (otherwise the decomposers could become denatured and decay would not happen) and also to allow oxygen in to the nest in order for aerobic respiration to take place.
3bii) They must have adequate numbers of males and females in order to sucessfully reproduce, so the temperatures must be controlled in order to maintain a roughly even proportion.


Question 4

4a) Mumps and Rubella
4bi) 504/630 = 0.8 = 80%
4bii) It further decreases the amount of people that are at risk of MMR, which means that it is less likely to spread and it could possibly be completely eradicated.
4ci) A dead or inactive form of the pathogen you are trying to defend against.
4cii) A vaccination contains a dead or inactive form of the appropriate pathogen, which means that the white blood cells will have adequate time to respond without risk of illness as the pathogen is not a threat to the body. This means that the next time the pathogen enters the body, the memory cells will 'remember' the pathogen so they will be able to produce respond (such as producing antibodies) quicker so you don't feel ill.
4di) Measles is a virus, so it reproduces inside the body cells. This makes it difficult for the antibiotics to defend against the virus without risk of also damaging the body cells in the process, so they cannot be sucessfully used to treat measles.
4dii) Because the resistant strains of the pathogen have less competition and thrive, which means that there is a higher proportion of resistant bacteria meaning that the antibiotic will not be very effective.


Question 5

5a) Motor neurone.
5b) The relay neurone secretes a chemical transmitter when it recieves an impulse from the sensory neurone. This diffuses across the gap and produces an impulse in the motor neurone which is then used to transfer information.
5c)
•Curare decreases the magnitude of the response by the muscles (e.g. smaller contraction)
•Strychnine increases the magnitude of the response (e.g. larger contraction)

[may also/instead be speed of reflex]



Question 6

6ai) Morning sickness (maybe insomnia? :confused:)
6aii) Leprosy (maybe morning sickness?)
6aiii) It can cause children to be born with deformities and disabilties.
6aiv) It was only tested on pregnant mothers, which means that there was no time to see the effects on the child.
6bi) It alters the chemistry of the body and can also produce withdrawal symptoms.
6bii) Some drugs such as nicotine have a similar dependence factor to Class A drugs (nicotine's dependence factor is similar to that of cocaine, alcohol's is similar to that of LSD) so they could cause people to become addicted to them. By making them illegal, you would reduce the number of people prepared to supply them and reduce the dangers.
6biii) Lethality of the drugs (i.e. how harmful they are to people)


Question 7

7ai) There was genetic variation in the types of elephants due to a random mutation that occured which caused the elephants to have different characteristics. This meant there was competition between the different elephants and the elephant with the trunk was better adapted to reach into trees than the elephant with the long nose. This eventually led to the elephants with the long nose dying out as they did not get enough food, so the elephants with the trunk had less competition and went on to sucessfully reproduce.
7aii) Lamarck's theory would suggest that as the elephant with the long nose found itself having to use its nose more to reach the leaves, these characteristics were then passed to its offspring which led to it having a trunk.
7bi)
•There was no evidence
•Information about genes and chromosomes was not known at the time.
7bii) All living things were created by God.


Question 8

8a) The scientists could remove the chromosome from maize plants using enzymes and place the gene from Bacilius thuringiensis into the maize chromosome (which is also cut out using enzymes). This new chromosome could then be reinserted back into the maize plants and would cause them to produce the insect killing toxin.

[Also culture cells to grow more copies]

8b)
The GM plants would save the farmers money as less crops would be eaten by insects meaning that there would be more crops left over. In addition to this, it could also increase the quality of the plants as there would be less corn borers.
On the other hand, it will mean that the insects that eat the crops would die out, leading to a decrease in biodiversity. Also, the plants may not be able to sexually reproduce as they would kill the insects that pollinate them. Finally, the effects of GM plants on humans are not fully known so it could have a detrimental effect on us.
In conclusion, I think that farmers should not grow GM plants as it would mean that the plants would not be able to reproduce sexually which could mean a loss in profits for the farmers.


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Fudge2
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nice work. I think for 6 part a)i) was asking what thalidomide was originally used for (ie as a sleeping pill), and then a)ii) was what was discovered that it could also treat (morning sickness)?


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Connorbwfc
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Think 6ai) is sleeping pills and 6aii) morning sickness.

thanks btw
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(Original post by Fudge2)
nice work. I think for 6 part a)i) was asking what thalidomide was originally used for (ie as a sleeping pill), and then a)ii) was what was discovered that it could also treat (morning sickness)?


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I think both insomnia and morning sickness would count, that's just me though. IMO leprosy was the answer for part 2.
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FREYA2898
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This was such an easy paper


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otherdan
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6ai) Morning sickness
6aii) Leprosy/Insomnia
I think it was insomnia first (developed as a sleeping pill) and then was found to be effective for treating morning sickness.

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2014_GCSE
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For question 6, it was originally used to help people sleep. Then the second question was talking about how it was ACTUALLY used which was to prevent morning sickness which led onto the third question of why it was bad for this use.

6ai) and 6aii) are wrong, I believe.

EDIT: Only just seen the rest of the posts, so feel free to ignore though I believe this is correct still
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PointDexter
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Firstly...I LOVE YOU
Secondly...i dont thing the thalidomide questions right it was
sleeping pill
Morning sickness
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Myst0x
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(Original post by Fudge2)
nice work. I think for 6 part a)i) was asking what thalidomide was originally used for (ie as a sleeping pill), and then a)ii) was what was discovered that it could also treat (morning sickness)?


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I wrote thalidomide was originally used for morning sickness. aii) It was found that it could cure/treat leprosy.



I don't know if this is 100% sure, but that's what I wrote
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lerjj
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I have to agree with the general direction of the thread.

Thalidomide was developed as a sleeping pill and was not tested on pregnant animals. It was then discovered that it helped with morning sickness and without further testing was prescribed to pregnant women.
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just-wandering
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give me ur memory
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lerjj
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Also, I know that your answer will be the one on the MS for 1a) but I'd like to say that they were so vague by saying 'a habitat' that it could be not triangular.

The Earth for example has 8 times more people than sheep, so would have a larger section for humans. But for sheep farms (and the whole of Wales/ New Zealand I expect) a pyramid would be correct. Basically, stupid question AQA! :stupido2: :stupido:
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DragonSlayer666
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thalidomide was orginally a drug tested and used as a sleeping pill so i 6ai you can likely get away with helping you to sleep or just sleeping pills.

6aii was talking about how thalidomide helped with a condition but was not tested and this condition was morning sickness.
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CaitlinN15
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Ooo I've done okay! Thank you so much I don't know how you can remember everythinng about the exam haha

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BBeyond
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The thalidomide question will allow both insomnia and morning sickness, and the next question will allow morning sickness and leprosy I'm fairly sure.
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(Original post by AlphaNick)
2) Missed out many vital points. ie no/few stomata, spikes/hairs to reduce air flow,

3) b) i) No. It was to allow for aerobic respiration to occur as oxygen is needed. "Air vents closing to allow heat to escape" makes no sense - that would prevent heat from 'escaping'.

3) b) ii) Animals won't interbreed with siblings... it is simpler than that - just to have an equal balance of genders.

4) c) i) Not a single mention of specific antibodies = marks lost.

4) d) ii) No. It was because it stimulates resistant bacteria to develop through natural selection. The presence of other, non-resistant bacteria doesn't affect the function / 'thriving' of the resistant bacteria.

5) b) Unnamed chemical? It's called neurotransmitter - I wouldn't be surprised if there were at least one mark for that.

5) c) Magnitude? No. Speed - yes. The 'size of the arm's withdrawal' isn't defined by the amount of neurotransmitter - the amount only defines the speed, as with a higher concentration (ie more) of neurotransmitter, diffusion will occur quicker and the response will be quicker.

6) a) i) ...and insomnia.

6) a) iii) Any specific named disabilities? You need to mention limb deformities. 'Disabilities' is an incredibly general term.

6) a) iv) No. Thalidomide was tested on a sufficient range of people - only they released it before they were able to observe the length of time for the limb deformities to emerge (ie at least 9 months).

6) b) i) Nothing to do with body chemistry. Just that the user experiences withdrawal symptoms if they don't take it consistently.

6) b) ii) SAME dependence factor, you had to evaluate not just use stuff which is from own knowledge. Both Nicotine and Cocaine had a factor of 2.3 (equal) - you had to draw this comparison. "Similar factors" (while not naming drugs) will probably lose marks.

6) b) ii) Lethality is hardly an appropriate term - it implies that they are lethal (ie they kill). The proper thing to mention is the potential side effects / effects on human health.

7) a) i) Mentioning 'different characteristics' is all fun and joyful but it was talking specifically about the trunk length. You also had to explicitly mention that they competed better and passed on their beneficial alleles / characteristics.

7) b) i) There was evidence. Evidence for it was the differentiation of break sizes of finches, and many more examples exist. The second reason was that time to observe and scientifically prove it takes generations - ie they can't prove it unless they wait for several million years.

8) a) You need to mention specifically that enzymes were used to cut the gene out of the bacterial plasmid before being inserted onto the callus. Also you forgot to mention that they culture them afterwards. They don't genetically modify one cell and leave it.

8) b) You forgot to mention that less money / energy would be wasted producing pesticides and transporting them. Also in the description it SPECIFICALLY said for a reason that "bees and other insects use the maize plant" - meaning that you forgot to mention that it would affect the ecosystem as it would kill bees, and it would also prevent fertilisation. Not to mention the rudimentary facts which need to be mentioned like them producing infertile offspring.
you are way too critical. this is gcse not a level and the detail you are thinking of is not needed.
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(Original post by AlphaNick)
2) Missed out many vital points. ie no/few stomata, spikes/hairs to reduce air flow,

Stomata are included in water loss, that's a B3 topic and won't be needed.

I'll add it the spikes.

3) b) i) No. It was to allow for aerobic respiration to occur as oxygen is needed. "Air vents closing to allow heat to escape" makes no sense - that would prevent heat from 'escaping'.

It was air vents opening and closing...

3) b) ii) Animals won't interbreed with siblings... it is simpler than that - just to have an equal balance of genders.

It's all good.

4) c) i) Not a single mention of specific antibodies = marks lost.

Never normally ask for them.

4) d) ii) No. It was because it stimulates resistant bacteria to develop through natural selection. The presence of other, non-resistant bacteria doesn't affect the function / 'thriving' of the resistant bacteria.

Less competition means they can develop better because they have more resources.

5) b) Unnamed chemical? It's called neurotransmitter - I wouldn't be surprised if there were at least one mark for that.

Chemical transmitter is pretty much the same thing IMO, but sure.

5) c) Magnitude? No. Speed - yes. The 'size of the arm's withdrawal' isn't defined by the amount of neurotransmitter - the amount only defines the speed, as with a higher concentration (ie more) of neurotransmitter, diffusion will occur quicker and the response will be quicker.

Fair enough.

6) a) i) ...and insomnia.

Edited that in.

6) a) iii) Any specific named disabilities? You need to mention limb deformities. 'Disabilities' is an incredibly general term.

I put deformities.

6) a) iv) No. Thalidomide was tested on a sufficient range of people - only they released it before they were able to observe the length of time for the limb deformities to emerge (ie at least 9 months).

That's what I put...

6) b) i) Nothing to do with body chemistry. Just that the user experiences withdrawal symptoms if they don't take it consistently.

It's all good.

6) b) ii) SAME dependence factor, you had to evaluate not just use stuff which is from own knowledge. Both Nicotine and Cocaine had a factor of 2.3 (equal) - you had to draw this comparison. "Similar factors" (while not naming drugs) will probably lose marks.

I did name them...

6) b) ii) Lethality is hardly an appropriate term - it implies that they are lethal (ie they kill). The proper thing to mention is the potential side effects / effects on human health.

They can kill. Lethality is the potential to kill IMO.

7) a) i) Mentioning 'different characteristics' is all fun and joyful but it was talking specifically about the trunk length. You also had to explicitly mention that they competed better and passed on their beneficial alleles / characteristics.

I did.

7) b) i) There was evidence. Evidence for it was the differentiation of break sizes of finches, and many more examples exist. The second reason was that time to observe and scientifically prove it takes generations - ie they can't prove it unless they wait for several million years.

Other papers seem to allow it. There may have been some, but not enough to definitely confirm it.

8) a) You need to mention specifically that enzymes were used to cut the gene out of the bacterial plasmid before being inserted onto the callus. Also you forgot to mention that they culture them afterwards. They don't genetically modify one cell and leave it.

Fair enough.

8) b) You forgot to mention that less money / energy would be wasted producing pesticides and transporting them. Also in the description it SPECIFICALLY said for a reason that "bees and other insects use the maize plant" - meaning that you forgot to mention that it would affect the ecosystem as it would kill bees, and it would also prevent fertilisation. Not to mention the rudimentary facts which need to be mentioned like them producing infertile offspring.

Reduced biodiversity is the same thing IMO.

Unable to sexually reproduce is the same as infertile.

Seems to me you're just being critical for the sake of it.
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xoflower
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For question 2, the six marker, did we have to mention specific animals/plants

I just said in general that animals in dry conditions have large surface area etc...
Plants in dry conditions etc...
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Fudge2
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(Original post by AlphaNick)
2) Missed out many vital points. ie no/few stomata, spikes/hairs to reduce air flow,

3) b) i) No. It was to allow for aerobic respiration to occur as oxygen is needed. "Air vents closing to allow heat to escape" makes no sense - that would prevent heat from 'escaping'.

3) b) ii) Animals won't interbreed with siblings... it is simpler than that - just to have an equal balance of genders.

4) c) i) Not a single mention of specific antibodies = marks lost.

4) d) ii) No. It was because it stimulates resistant bacteria to develop through natural selection. The presence of other, non-resistant bacteria doesn't affect the function / 'thriving' of the resistant bacteria.

5) b) Unnamed chemical? It's called neurotransmitter - I wouldn't be surprised if there were at least one mark for that.

5) c) Magnitude? No. Speed - yes. The 'size of the arm's withdrawal' isn't defined by the amount of neurotransmitter - the amount only defines the speed, as with a higher concentration (ie more) of neurotransmitter, diffusion will occur quicker and the response will be quicker.

6) a) i) ...and insomnia.

6) a) iii) Any specific named disabilities? You need to mention limb deformities. 'Disabilities' is an incredibly general term.

6) a) iv) No. Thalidomide was tested on a sufficient range of people - only they released it before they were able to observe the length of time for the limb deformities to emerge (ie at least 9 months).

6) b) i) Nothing to do with body chemistry. Just that the user experiences withdrawal symptoms if they don't take it consistently.

6) b) ii) SAME dependence factor, you had to evaluate not just use stuff which is from own knowledge. Both Nicotine and Cocaine had a factor of 2.3 (equal) - you had to draw this comparison. "Similar factors" (while not naming drugs) will probably lose marks.

6) b) ii) Lethality is hardly an appropriate term - it implies that they are lethal (ie they kill). The proper thing to mention is the potential side effects / effects on human health.

7) a) i) Mentioning 'different characteristics' is all fun and joyful but it was talking specifically about the trunk length. You also had to explicitly mention that they competed better and passed on their beneficial alleles / characteristics.

7) b) i) There was evidence. Evidence for it was the differentiation of break sizes of finches, and many more examples exist. The second reason was that time to observe and scientifically prove it takes generations - ie they can't prove it unless they wait for several million years.

8) a) You need to mention specifically that enzymes were used to cut the gene out of the bacterial plasmid before being inserted onto the callus. Also you forgot to mention that they culture them afterwards. They don't genetically modify one cell and leave it.

8) b) You forgot to mention that less money / energy would be wasted producing pesticides and transporting them. Also in the description it SPECIFICALLY said for a reason that "bees and other insects use the maize plant" - meaning that you forgot to mention that it would affect the ecosystem as it would kill bees, and it would also prevent fertilisation. Not to mention the rudimentary facts which need to be mentioned like them producing infertile offspring.
6)b)i you may be correct on a more advanced level, but I'm fairly sure that the spec states withdrawal symptoms are due to changes in chemical processes in the body like op says.
7)b)i again, you might be right, but the spec says 3 reasons for it not being accepted were religion, lack of evidence and lack of knowledge of genes/chromosome, so lack of evidence is a genuine point I believe.


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(Original post by lerjj)
Also, I know that your answer will be the one on the MS for 1a) but I'd like to say that they were so vague by saying 'a habitat' that it could be not triangular.

The Earth for example has 8 times more people than sheep, so would have a larger section for humans. But for sheep farms (and the whole of Wales/ New Zealand I expect) a pyramid would be correct. Basically, stupid question AQA! :stupido2: :stupido:
Yeah, I got that as well and was a bit annoyed that they didn't give any data

Better to just grit your teeth and put it down I guess
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