username459260
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If insulin causes upregulation of Glut4 channels, what happens when insulin is low? how does this "remove" glut4 from cell membranes?
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Eloades11
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Low levels of insulin is a sign of low blood-glucose levels, thus liver cells break down glycogen into glucose and secrete into the blood to increase blood-sugar levels. For GLUT4, my guess is that the cells recycle them as they are no longer needed in low insulin levels, in order to prevent constant uptake of glucose. I couldn't find any papers on GLUT4 downregulation, so I can't be sure whether they re-enter intracellular vesicles or are simply targeted for degredation via the E3 ubiquitin ligase pathway.
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(Original post by Eloades11)
Low levels of insulin is a sign of low blood-glucose levels, thus liver cells break down glycogen into glucose and secrete into the blood to increase blood-sugar levels. For GLUT4, my guess is that the cells recycle them as they are no longer needed in low insulin levels, in order to prevent constant uptake of glucose. I couldn't find any papers on GLUT4 downregulation, so I can't be sure whether they re-enter intracellular vesicles or are simply targeted for degredation via the E3 ubiquitin ligase pathway.
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