Periodic Table, Electron Shells and Atoms and Elements help?

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Clueless<3
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Hello,
Last week I returned to school (I am now in Year 10) from the summer holidays. In chemistry we have been learning about The Periodic Table, Electron Shells and Atoms and Elements. We have science everyday apart from a Friday and I am really struggling to understand these topics. I spoke to my teacher and she said it might help if I make a glossary with definitions on keywords we have covered so far, to keep in my folder. I have made a list of keywords that I would like to include and have answered as much as I can. But there is still quite a lot I need definitions for; I have searched the internet countless times, but the meanings it has came up with are so confusing. So I guess what I am trying to ask is if you would please give me VERY SIMPLE definitions of the following:
- POSITIVE ION
- NEUTRAL ION
- NEGATIVE ION
- SUB-ATOMIC
- THE PERIODIC TABLE
- COMPOUND
- MIXTURE
- MASS NUMBER
- GROUPS
- PERIODS
- REACTIVE
- UNREACTIVE
- OUTER SHELL
- SHELL
- ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE
Thank you all so much in advance, I really appreciate any help at all you can give me.
- Clueless<3
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mattcandy3
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POSITIVE ION- an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss of electrons
- NEUTRAL ION -of an ion with one or more neutral molecules
- NEGATIVE ION-an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the gain of electrons
- SUB-ATOMIC-smaller than or occurring within an atom.
- THE PERIODIC TABLE-a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.
- COMPOUND- Made up of two or more separate elements
- MIXTURE-Two or more substances which have been combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity ( e.g doesnt dissolve)
- MASS NUMBER -the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
- GROUPS-a set of elements occupying a column in the periodic table and having broadly similar properties arising from their similar electronic structure.
- PERIODS- Arranged into periods bases on similarities (e.g whether they are radioactive)
- REACTIVE- responds to a certain stimulus/ condition/element
- UNREACTIVE- does not respond to a certain stimulus/condition/element
- OUTER SHELL- (bit vague Outer shell of what the electron?)
- SHELL- (bit vague) ( shell of what?)
- ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE-(bit vague) ( electronic structure of what)
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charco
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(Original post by mattcandy3)
POSITIVE ION- an electrically charged atom
particle

formed by the loss of electrons
- NEUTRAL ION -of an ion with one or more neutral molecules
This is nonsense - all ions carry a charge!
- NEGATIVE ION-an electrically charged atom
particle
formed by the gain of electrons
- SUB-ATOMIC-smaller than or occurring within an atom.
- THE PERIODIC TABLE-a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.
- COMPOUND- Made up of two or more separate elements
- MIXTURE-Two or more substances which have been combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity ( e.g doesnt dissolve)
- MASS NUMBER -the total number of protons and neutrons in the
atom of an isotope of an atom
- GROUPS-a set of elements occupying a column in the periodic table and having broadly similar properties arising from their similar electronic structure.
- PERIODS- Arranged into periods bases on similarities (e.g whether they are radioactive)
the horizontal rows in the periodic table
- REACTIVE- responds to a certain stimulus/ condition/element
this sounds more like a biological reference
- UNREACTIVE- does not respond to a certain stimulus/condition/element
ditto
- OUTER SHELL- (bit vague Outer shell of what the electron?)
the electron shell furthest from the nucleus - also called the valence shell
- SHELL- (bit vague) ( shell of what?)
energy level possessed by a specific group of electrons around an atom
- ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE-(bit vague) ( electronic structure of what)
The way the electrons are arranged around an atom ...
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mattcandy3
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(Original post by charco)
particle
This is nonsense - all ions carry a charge!
particle atom of an isotope of an atom the horizontal rows in the periodic table this sounds more like a biological reference ditto the electron shell furthest from the nucleus - also called the valence shell energy level possessed by a specific group of electrons around an atomThe way the electrons are arranged around an atom ...
An ion, is not necessarily a charged particle, but can also be a charged atom/molecule, i merely provided definetions which gave some insight, not useless definitions so as " the horizontal rows in the periodic table"

Thanks, as for the last 3 they may not be vague to you, but 'Shell' is vague it should be 'electron shell' etc.... also as to Unreactive/Reactive they may sound biological (eg, Biochemistry)

but thanks for the criticism
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charco
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(Original post by mattcandy3)
An ion, is not necessarily a charged particle, but can also be a charged atom/molecule, i merely provided definetions which gave some insight, not useless definitions so as " the horizontal rows in the periodic table"

Thanks, as for the last 3 they may not be vague to you, but 'Shell' is vague it should be 'electron shell' etc.... also as to Unreactive/Reactive they may sound biological (eg, Biochemistry)

but thanks for the criticism
An ion, by definition, has to carry a charge ...
there can be no such thing as a "neutral ion"

please don't take the above as criticism - you are doing a good thing, but I need to clarify a little ...
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mattcandy3
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(Original post by charco)
An ion, by definition, has to carry a charge ...
there can be no such thing as a "neutral ion"

please don't take the above as criticism - you are doing a good thing, but I need to clarify a little ...
Ok thankyou for clearing that up for me . Im just trying to help
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Pigster
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(Original post by charco)
An ion, by definition, has to carry a charge ...
there can be no such thing as a "neutral ion"
What about a zwitterion?
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charco
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(Original post by Pigster)
What about a zwitterion?
touché

... although zwitter comes from the German for two, so you could argue that it carries two charges (even if they do cancel out)
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CandyKoRn
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As has been said; no such thing as a neutral ion.

By electronic structure, do you mean electronic configuration? Which is basically the position(location) of electrons around the atomic nucleus and in what subshell they are in.
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mattcandy3
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(Original post by CandyKoRn)
As has been said; no such thing as a neutral ion.

By electronic structure, do you mean electronic configuration? Which is basically the position(location) of electrons around the atomic nucleus and in what subshell they are in.
A zwitterion is a neutral ion regardless of the + and - charge, due to the laws they cancel out, to give 0 charge, therefore it is neutral technically regardless of the charges presented on it
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Clueless<3
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(Original post by mattcandy3)
POSITIVE ION- an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the loss of electrons
- NEUTRAL ION -of an ion with one or more neutral molecules
- NEGATIVE ION-an electrically charged atom or group of atoms formed by the gain of electrons
- SUB-ATOMIC-smaller than or occurring within an atom.
- THE PERIODIC TABLE-a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure (and hence similar chemical properties) appear in vertical columns.
- COMPOUND- Made up of two or more separate elements
- MIXTURE-Two or more substances which have been combined such that each substance retains its own chemical identity ( e.g doesnt dissolve)
- MASS NUMBER -the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
- GROUPS-a set of elements occupying a column in the periodic table and having broadly similar properties arising from their similar electronic structure.
- PERIODS- Arranged into periods bases on similarities (e.g whether they are radioactive)
- REACTIVE- responds to a certain stimulus/ condition/element
- UNREACTIVE- does not respond to a certain stimulus/condition/element
- OUTER SHELL- (bit vague Outer shell of what the electron?)
- SHELL- (bit vague) ( shell of what?)
- ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE-(bit vague) ( electronic structure of what)
This is a perfect response thank you so so much! Sorry it has took me so long to get back to you, this has really helped
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