Want to discuss about Phylum protozoa with someone Watch

Slearner
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HiI'm studying about the protozoa and want someone to discuss with, its: general characteristics andits example, that's paramecium.anyone want to learn or revise with me? thanks.
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Kallisto
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(Original post by Slearner)
HiI'm studying about the protozoa and want someone to discuss with, its: general characteristics andits example, that's paramecium.anyone want to learn or revise with me? thanks.
Feel free! I would love to discuss with you about this organisms so much about these organisms. Paramecium is an interesting example, as it is able to subsist in two ways, namely heterotrophic and autotrophic. That is to say it has the feeding habit of both an animal and a plant.
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Slearner
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Thank you very much so, let's begin:
We've the first point that protozoa are unicellular.
I also read the term acellular for protozoans. in my understanding, "a" means "without" and "cellular" as obvious is "cell". So, the point is aren't unicellular and acellular are in contrast to each other? As unicellular has one cell and acellurar hasn't. Can you please explain this?

You said paramecium has both auto tropic and hetrotropic mode of nutrition, I'm just learning so maybe I'm wrong but isn't Euglena the one having both mode of nutrition? Please correct me if I'm wrong.

So,another point is that they're eukaryotic. How'll we define eukaryotes?can you give an accurate standard definition?

Locomotory organs are pseudopodia, cilia and flagella. Pseudopodia are the finger like projections or outgrowth which appear by the extension of ectoplasm with endoplasm flowing inside. Flagella is the long tail like locomotory structure (proper definition?)
While cilia are the hair like short locomotory structure.

Reproduction is asexual and sexual.
Asexual by binary fission and multiple fission(in case of unfavorable condition.)
Sexual reproduction is by conjugation. But they prefer asexual one. But sexual is important as to cause variation in heredity material, as without variation the specie weakens. (but if a specie's genes are already strong and it transfer from generation to generation without any change, why it weakens?)
Please guide and if there's something more you want to add
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Kallisto
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(Original post by Slearner)
Thank you very much so, let's begin:
We've the first point that protozoa are unicellular.
I also read the term acellular for protozoans. in my understanding, "a" means "without" and "cellular" as obvious is "cell". So, the point is aren't unicellular and acellular are in contrast to each other? As unicellular has one cell and acellurar hasn't. Can you please explain this? (...)
As you said unicellular has one cell, while acellular is without a cell. Protozoas count to unicellular because of the heterotropic feeding habit. To tell the truth I don't find a clue that protozoa are acellular, just because its a contradiction.

(Original post by Slearner)
(...) You said paramecium has both auto tropic and hetrotropic mode of nutrition, I'm just learning so maybe I'm wrong but isn't Euglena the one having both mode of nutrition? Please correct me if I'm wrong. (...)
Yes, you are right. I have confused protozoa with euglena. Euglena is an unicellar as well which is able to both feeding habits.

(Original post by Slearner)
So,another point is that they're eukaryotic. How'll we define eukaryotes?can you give an accurate standard definition?
Eukariotic unicellular are cells with a nucleus. The contrast to eukaryotes are prokaryotes which have no nucleus. The difference between them is the DNA: in eukaryotes the DNA exists in the nucleus, while the DNA of a prokaryote just exists in the cytoplasm.

(Original post by Slearner)
(...) Locomotory organs are pseudopodia, cilia and flagella. Pseudopodia are the finger like projections or outgrowth which appear by the extension of ectoplasm with endoplasm flowing inside. Flagella is the long tail like locomotory structure (proper definition?)
While cilia are the hair like short locomotory structure. (...)
flagellas are unicellars which may have thousands of flagella to be in motion. Pseudopodias are quasi evagination of cytosol. Cytosol is a part of the cytoplasm in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. If I do have this right Pseudopodias are just 'excretions' of these cells. Cilias are evaginations of cytoplasm which are caused by cell membranes.

(Original post by Slearner)
(...) Reproduction is asexual and sexual.
Asexual by binary fission and multiple fission(in case of unfavorable condition.)
Sexual reproduction is by conjugation. But they prefer asexual one. But sexual is important as to cause variation in heredity material, as without variation the specie weakens. (but if a specie's genes are already strong and it transfer from generation to generation without any change, why it weakens?)
Please guide and if there's something more you want to add
What is your reference of your question? do I have this right that you want to know whether asexual reproduction may weakens the next generation cell?
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Slearner
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Thank you very much for the replyI found the solution to the first point. acellular means "a mass of protoplasm not divided into cells." so as protozoa is only single cell, so we can say it's acellular as has not divided into many cells but has just one.anand my last question was that my textbook says that paramecium prefers asexual reproduction but they need to perform sexual one as well at some stage of their life. if they don't, it'll weaken the specie because of the lack of variation in genes structure. so I'm asking that if a specie has already strong genes present, then why and how the lack of sexual reproduction or continuous asexual reproduction weakens the specie? as asexual reproduction transfer the gene unaltered so a specie with weak genes will soon disappear but what about a specie with a strong gene? is it because under unfavorable conditions the specie has to adapt itself to the changes to survive?and I read that protozoa has great variety of species. so, as they've mostly the asexual reproduction, then how the variety is produced? as if we say by mutation then mutation will cause very little change as it occurs very less.
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Kallisto
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You are asking many questions, but that is a sign of curiosity, I like that.

(Original post by Slearner)
(...) anand my last question was that my textbook says that paramecium prefers asexual reproduction but they need to perform sexual one as well at some stage of their life. if they don't, it'll weaken the specie because of the lack of variation in genes structure. so I'm asking that if a specie has already strong genes present, then why and how the lack of sexual reproduction or continuous asexual reproduction weakens the specie? (...)
I just read an excerpt about asexual reproduction. It is said that this form of reproduction cannot enable genetic recombination. And recombination is a property of genetic variation. Just hypothetically the protozoas have strong genes, that is to say they have a high variation before asexual reproduction, so these genes will not recombinate again by reproducing asexual. In comparison to another strong genes which are reproducing by sexual reproduction, these genes have a lesser variation than the another ones, as the another ones were able to recombinate their genes. I think so at least.

(Original post by Slearner)
(...) as asexual reproduction transfer the gene unaltered so a specie with weak genes will soon disappear but what about a specie with a strong gene? is it because under unfavorable conditions the specie has to adapt itself to the changes to survive? (...)
After Darwinism I think so. If a high variation means to be more adaptable, we can say that strong genes have an advantage. From this perspective these genes may change the genes in that way that protozoas are adapt to their environment. Its just a speculation. Normally adaption is caused by genetic drift.

(Original post by Slearner)
(...) and I read that protozoa has great variety of species. so, as they've mostly the asexual reproduction, then how the variety is produced? as if we say by mutation then mutation will cause very little change as it occurs very less.
Mutation is a possibility of changing the genes. Just hypothecally there is a protozoa with mutated genes, so this protozoa will enrich the gene pool in the population of protozoa. From this point of view you can say that mutation enables variation by difference. Recombination is not possible, as its asexual production.

Remember that I have told about speculations!
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