Cause of Fall of Spartans

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Jak_
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Aristotle explains in the Politics Bk. I., ch. 9.

the great disadvantages which the Spartans brought upon themselves by granting too much to their women, by allowing them the right of inheritance and dowry, and a great amount of freedom; and how this contributed greatly to the fall of Sparta.
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Arbolus
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On the contrary. I think the Spartan reasoning on this matter was spot on. It makes sense that a child who grows up with two strong, independent parent figures is likely to end up tougher than a child with only one.
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Chrisgibson
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The Spartans, unlike the Athenians, only let citizens in to the army.
Since Spartan citizens made up only a small proportion of the population, if the Spartan army lost in battle then it would largely decrease the amount of citizens.
The Spartan army was eventually decimated which led to the eventual withdrawal of Sparta from the grand stage of ancient Greek politics
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Kemosabe99
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^this.

Also Sparta was just a tiny island with a tiny population... it could only be strong for so long before dropping off.
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Arkasia
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Leonidas and his 300 were a collection of the best and bravest Spartans, and they were defeated by a Quasimodo reject.
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username931319
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Theban hegemony after defeating Sparta in the Corinthian war, coupled with domestic demographic problems. Helots outnumbered the Lacedaemonians.
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Josb
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(Original post by Chrisgibson)
The Spartans, unlike the Athenians, only let citizens in to the army.
Since Spartan citizens made up only a small proportion of the population, if the Spartan army lost in battle then it would largely decrease the amount of citizens.
The Spartan army was eventually decimated which led to the eventual withdrawal of Sparta from the grand stage of ancient Greek politics
They used the perioeci to fight on the first line - and sometimes the helots as well.
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Josb
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Spartans had a very restrictive citizenship. They eliminated right after their birth all the newborns they found with malformations. Then, Spartan education was extremely harsh, many died during the process. It certainly produced the best warriors, but at a terrible cost for the City (50% of casualties).
Moreover, Spartan citizens had to attend collective banquets - called the syssitia - where they were expected to bring their own food. When one couldn't, he was degraded and lost his citizenship. Initially, each citizen had an equal plot of land (Spartans were called the Homoioi - the "equals"). However, during the 5th century this egalitarian system was shaken by inheritances, which split or merged many plots. As a result, some citizens became wealthier, while some other couldn't afford the cost of the banquets - and were consequently deprived from their citizenship.
Needless to say that any defeated soldier was also stripped of his citizenship.
Thus the number of citizens steadily decreased throughout the classical period. From 8,000 in 480, they were barely a thousand one century later.

All in one, their rigorous conception of citizenship caused far more damage to the City than war casualties. They should have shared again the civic land at each new generation and forbade plot mergers. By the way, Cleomenes III (235-22), one of the last Spartan kings, tried to pass an agrarian reform in order to restore the initial social order, but he was defeated by the Macedonians.
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Josb
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(Original post by Kemosabe99)
^this.

Also Sparta was just a tiny island with a tiny population... it could only be strong for so long before dropping off.
Sparta was actually the biggest Greek City - and definitively not an island.
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