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    Sorry it's long, I couldn't add it as an attachment. Shout out if you want more!! These are the first two chapters for AS level.

    Biological molecules
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]Carbohydrates


    1. Monosaccharides


    - these are sugars that dissolve easily.
    - formula(CH2O)n
    - named after the carbon atoms for example: hexose C6 H12 O6 or (CH2O)6

    1.2 Alpha and beta glucose



    - the hydroxyl group OH will either be above or below the plane of the ring.
    - below is alpha glucose
    - above is beta glucose
    - this is an isomer. Meaning it is the same molecule in two forms.


    1.3 Functions


    - they are used as energy for respiration
    - their bonds are broken which release energy, which makes ATP
    - they are also building blocks for larger molecules.
    - glucose makes cellulose, glycogen etc. ribose makes RNA
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2. Disaccharides [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- two monosaccharides joining together. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- glucose + fructose= sucrose. glucose + glucose = maltose[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- joining two monosaccharides is called condensation [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- breaking disaccharides is called hydrolysis. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- where two monosaccharides join is called glycosidic bond. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]3. Polysaccharides [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- similar to disaccharides but with more bonds[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- these are NOT sugars[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the most important ones are starch, glycogen and cellulose[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]3.2 storage [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- glucose cannot be stored in plants[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the sugar would dissolve and the content would be too concentrated. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- glucose is also reactive, so it would interfere with cell chemistry [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- to avoid this glucose is converted to a polysaccharide. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this storage is compact, inert and insoluble. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]3.3 starch and glycogen[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- starch is amylose and amylopectin. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- chains of 1,4 links are long and straight. 1,6 links branch out[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- glycogen is found only in animals, while starch in plants. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]4. Cellulose [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- cellulose is strong, with a structural role. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- cellulose is a polymer of B- glucose. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]LIPIDS[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1. Triglycerides[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- made of three fatty acids and one glycerol [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- fatty acids have -COOH group attached to hydrocarbon tail. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- triglycerides are insoluble, but are soluble in ethanol [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1.2 saturated and unsaturated [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- some fatty acids have double bonds C=C. These are unsaturated[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- unsaturated does not contain maximum hydrogen[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- these double bonds make fatty acids melt more easily. Hence, oils compared to lard.[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- unsaturated does not have double bonds[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- polyunsaturated have more than one, compared to monounsaturated [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1.3 roles of triglycerides [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- great energy reserves. A mass of lipids will yield more energy than carbohydrates[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- acts as insulation below the skin[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- uncommon: metabolic source of water, when oxidized in respiration it is converted to CO2 and H2O[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2. Phospholipids[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- each molecule has an end which is soluble in water[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- one fatty acids is replaced with a phosphate group, which is polar[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is hydrophilic and makes the head of the phospholipid [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- these are used on the membrane[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]PROTEINS[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1. Functions[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- enzymes[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- hormones eg insulin [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- pigments that carry oxygen, eg. Haemoglobin[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- antibodies[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- collagen to add strength, and keratin in nails and hair[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1.2 amino acids [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- central carbon atom, bonded to amine group, and carboxylic group, and hydrogen atom[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the third R group differs per amino acid[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- there are 20 different amino acids[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1.3 peptide bonds[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- when amino acids join one loses the-OH group, while the other loses a hydrogen atom.[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the peptide bond is the carbon atom joining with the nitrogen, it is a strong covalent bond[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- dipeptide: is two amino acids. Polypeptide: many amino acids [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- (condensation) happens in ribosomes. It is controlled by enzymes [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- breaking down(hydrolysis) [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2. Structures[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- there are different structures of amino acids[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2.1 primary structure [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is the particular amino acids, and the sequence in the polypeptide chain. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- one small change will completely alter the properties[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2.2 secondary structure[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- a polypeptide chain coils up into a corkscrew shape. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is called Alpha-Helix [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is due to hydrogen bonding between the oxygen in -CO group and hydrogen in -NH group. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is a result of the polar characteristics between the groups[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the Beta- Pleated sheet [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is a looser shape, the hydrogen bonds were probably broken by h. Temp or pH change. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2.3 Tertiary structure[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the way a protein coils up to form a precise 3D shape[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- alpha helices are shown as cylinders[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2.4 Quaternary structure [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the association of different polypeptide chains[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]3. globular proteins[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- molecules that curl in a ball shape are globular. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the non polar, R groups point to the centre, away from watery surroundings[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the polar R groups are on the outside, so globular proteins are usually soluble[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- enzymes are globular proteins. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]3.2 fibrous proteins[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- these form long strands[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- not soluble, and have structural qualities (keratin) [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- are waterproof[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]4. Hemoglobin [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- made of four polypeptide chains[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- each chain is a protein called globin[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- two are made from A-globin and two from B-globin[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- there are four harm groups, which contain iron atoms. The iron binds with Oxygen molecules. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- oxyhaemoglobin is red from oxygen, if not it is purplish[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]4.1 sickle cell anaemia[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- one amino acid in the B-chain is replaced with a non polar amino acid. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- creates a non polar R group on the outside. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this makes the molecule less soluble[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]5. Collagen[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- an insoluble fibrous protein[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- found in skin, bones, cartilage [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- three polypeptide chains wound around each other forming a rope like texture[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- glycine is a small amino acid, which allows for a tight coil[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- they are very strong, and can resist pulling of 300 N per mm2 [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]6. Water[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- major component of cells, provides an environment for organisms[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the hydrogen bonding makes the molecules difficult to separate [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]6.1 solvent properties [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- water is a solvent for polar molecules and ions[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- insoluble liquids are pushed together by the water, since water molecules attract each other. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]6.2 properties[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]-large amount of energy is needed to raise the temp of water. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- conversely a large amount of energy must be transferred from water for it to freeze.[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- density decreases below 4Degrees Celsius [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this change in temperature causes currents, which maintains circulation. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- water molecules have high cohesion, this results in high surface tension[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]

    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]ENZYMES[/COLOR][COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]1. What are they[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- protein molecules that speeds up chemical reactions [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- remains unchanged at the end of the reaction[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- globular proteins[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- soluble, the hydrophilic R groups are on the outside[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- they have an active site[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2. lock and key hypothesis[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the idea that the enzyme has a particular shape into which the substrate fits[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- substrate being the key, and enzyme the lock[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is held into place by temporary bonds[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2.2 induced fit hypothesis [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- adds the idea that enzyme and/or substrate can change slightly for a better fit[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- makes the catalysis more efficient[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]2.3 lysozyme example [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- lysozyme is a natural defense against bacteria in tears, saliva[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- it breaks polysaccharide chains that form cell walls of bacteria[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]3. Reducing activation energy[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- enzymes reduce the activation energy[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- activation energy is the energy needed for a reaction to occur[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- they hold substrates in such a way that their molecules can react more easily[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]4. Course of reaction[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the reaction begins very swiftly [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this is because there are a lot of substrate particles, every enzyme is active [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the rate is limited by the amount of enzymes, not substrate[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- over time, fewer substrates are left, enzymes will not always be active[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the curve of the graph will slow down until stopping [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]5. Temp and enzyme activity[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)][/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- at low temperatures the reaction takes place very slowly[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- as it rises, so will the velocity and molecules will collide with success[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- if the temperature rises too much, the enzyme structure can break, it will become denatured[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- our optimum temperature is 40 degrees[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]5.1 pH and enzyme activity [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- most enzymes work at the pH of around 7[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- pH is the measure of hydrogen ions[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- the lower the pH, the more hydrogen ions there are and vice versa[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]6. Inhibitors[/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]
    [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- a competitive inhibitor binds briefly with the active site, this is reversible [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- a non competitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme permanently [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- another non competitive inhibitor is when a molecule binds another part of the enzyme. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- this disrupts the structure of the enzyme [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]- sometimes this is needed to stop enzymes reacting too fast. [/COLOR]
    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.701961)]



    [/COLOR]
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    Hi there,

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    Found this really helpful with some things my teacher didn't think to cover. Thank you!!
 
 
 
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