If the Genome is identical in all cells in our body (with minor exceptions)...

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Anonymous263
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can someone explain this to me.

The cells in an individual animal or plant are extraordinarily varied. Fat cells, skin cells, bone cells, nerve cells- they seem as dissimilar as any cells could be. Yet all these cell types are the descendants of a single fertilised egg cell, and all (with minor exceptions) contain identical copies of the genome of the species.
The differences result from the way in which the cells make selective use of their genetic instructions according to the cues they get from their surroundings in the developing embryo.
The DNA is not just a shopping list specifying the molecules that every cell must have, and the cell is not an assembly of all the items on the list. Rather the cell behaves as a multipurpose machine, with sensors to receive environmental signals and with highly developed abilities to call different sets of genes into action according to the sequences of signals to which the cell has been exposed.
The genome in each cell is big enough to accommodate the information that specifies an entire multicellular organism, but in any individual cell only part of that information is used.

If the genome is identical in all cells in our body then when a cell divides the two daughter cells are never identical to one another or the parent, then shouldn't the genome change too?

is cell division currently happening in our bodies right now or does it only happen to the fertilised egg?
This does sound kinda stupid I'm sorry but I'm a little confused
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She-Ra
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#2
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#2
(Original post by Anonymous263)
can someone explain this to me.

The cells in an individual animal or plant are extraordinarily varied. Fat cells, skin cells, bone cells, nerve cells- they seem as dissimilar as any cells could be. Yet all these cell types are the descendants of a single fertilised egg cell, and all (with minor exceptions) contain identical copies of the genome of the species.
The differences result from the way in which the cells make selective use of their genetic instructions according to the cues they get from their surroundings in the developing embryo.
The DNA is not just a shopping list specifying the molecules that every cell must have, and the cell is not an assembly of all the items on the list. Rather the cell behaves as a multipurpose machine, with sensors to receive environmental signals and with highly developed abilities to call different sets of genes into action according to the sequences of signals to which the cell has been exposed.
The genome in each cell is big enough to accommodate the information that specifies an entire multicellular organism, but in any individual cell only part of that information is used.

If the genome is identical in all cells in our body then when a cell divides the two daughter cells are never identical to one another or the parent, then shouldn't the genome change too?

is cell division currently happening in our bodies right now or does it only happen to the fertilised egg?
This does sound kinda stupid I'm sorry but I'm a little confused
I've moved this to the biological sciences study help forum for you :hat2:
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Asklepios
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(Original post by Anonymous263)
can someone explain this to me.

The cells in an individual animal or plant are extraordinarily varied. Fat cells, skin cells, bone cells, nerve cells- they seem as dissimilar as any cells could be. Yet all these cell types are the descendants of a single fertilised egg cell, and all (with minor exceptions) contain identical copies of the genome of the species.
The differences result from the way in which the cells make selective use of their genetic instructions according to the cues they get from their surroundings in the developing embryo.
The DNA is not just a shopping list specifying the molecules that every cell must have, and the cell is not an assembly of all the items on the list. Rather the cell behaves as a multipurpose machine, with sensors to receive environmental signals and with highly developed abilities to call different sets of genes into action according to the sequences of signals to which the cell has been exposed.
The genome in each cell is big enough to accommodate the information that specifies an entire multicellular organism, but in any individual cell only part of that information is used.

If the genome is identical in all cells in our body then when a cell divides the two daughter cells are never identical to one another or the parent, then shouldn't the genome change too?

is cell division currently happening in our bodies right now or does it only happen to the fertilised egg?
This does sound kinda stupid I'm sorry but I'm a little confused
The genome itself doesn't change but for a cell to become a certain type, some genes are amplified and some are switched off. The process by which a stem cell (fertilised egg) becomes a specific cell type is called cellular differentiation.

Cell division is happening in our bodies right now, but it depends on the type of cell. For example, skin cells are constantly dividing to replace the old ones, but brain cells never divide.


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Chlorophile
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#4
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All cells contain the same genome but not all genes are always in use. You could compare it to a textbook - the book contains all the information you'd need for any topic, but you only look at certain sections when you're studying a particular topic. Each cell contains the raw information for any function of any cell in the body but the way these genes are expressed depends on the particular cell.
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