rm_27
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Hey guys,

I've been trying to understand RNA, translation, but it's really not sinking in. Does anyone have any resources that may help?

For anyone that is willing to help, do you mind telling me what mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA is and how translation fits into all of this?

Thank you!
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username1560589
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DNA is transcribed to form mRNA, a single stranded nucleic acid.
This leaves the nucleus and moves to ribosomes in the cytoplasm or rough endoplasmic reticulum. The ribosomes are formed from rRNA. The ribosomes then form polypeptides using the instructions from the mRNA, building amino acids into proteins. This is called translation. tRNA helps to match amino acids to the mRNA sequence.


RNA is just a kind of nucleic acid containing ribose.
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rm_27
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(Original post by morgan8002)
DNA is transcribed to form mRNA, a single stranded nucleic acid.
This leaves the nucleus and moves to ribosomes in the cytoplasm or rough endoplasmic reticulum. The ribosomes are formed from rRNA. The ribosomes then form polypeptides using the instructions from the mRNA, building amino acids into proteins. This is called translation. tRNA helps to match amino acids to the mRNA sequence.


RNA is just a kind of nucleic acid containing ribose.
What do you mean by 'DNA is transcribed to from RNA'? What does transcribed actually mean? What is transcription? My apologies!
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(Original post by rm_27)
What do you mean by 'DNA is transcribed to from RNA'? What does transcribed actually mean? What is transcription? My apologies!
Transcription is the process by which an mRNA strand of formed which matches the DNA sequence.

The DNA unzips(using an enzyme) and so now there are two separate DNA strands(a normal DNA molecule is double stranded).
RNA nucleotides now line up with one of the strands through complimentary base pairing. When there are RNA nucleotides on each DNA nucleotide, the RNA nucleotides bond together to form a sugar-phosphate backbone. The RNA molecule moves away from the DNA molecule and the DNA strands zip together again.


A nucleotide is made up of an organic base, a phosphate group and a sugar. The sugar is ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA.


What level is this?
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rm_27
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(Original post by morgan8002)
Transcription is the process by which an mRNA strand of formed which matches the DNA sequence.

The DNA unzips(using an enzyme) and so now there are two separate DNA strands(a normal DNA molecule is double stranded).
RNA nucleotides now line up with one of the strands through complimentary base pairing. When there are RNA nucleotides on each DNA nucleotide, the RNA nucleotides bond together to form a sugar-phosphate backbone. The RNA molecule moves away from the DNA molecule and the DNA strands zip together again.


A nucleotide is made up of an organic base, a phosphate group and a sugar. The sugar is ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA.


What level is this?
Ah awesome! I understand it now, thank you very much. Do you know how much information you need to know on the other two (tRNA, and rRNA) I'm in AS level, you?
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(Original post by rm_27)
Ah awesome! I understand it now, thank you very much. I'm in AS level, you?
A2. I think for AS you need to know that the enzyme that unzips DNA is DNA helicase, and that complimentary base pairing is the result of hydrogen bonds between nucleotides.

Wasn't sure if it was GCSE so didn't want to confuse you too much.
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rm_27
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(Original post by morgan8002)
A2. I think for AS you need to know that the enzyme that unzips DNA is DNA helicase, and that complimentary base pairing is the result of hydrogen bonds between nucleotides.

Wasn't sure if it was GCSE so didn't want to confuse you too much.
Oh right, I see. Thank you! How did you do in AS if you don't mind me asking?
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(Original post by rm_27)
Oh right, I see. Thank you! How did you do in AS if you don't mind me asking?
I got an A, aiming for an A overall in A-level
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(Original post by morgan8002)
I got an A, aiming for an A overall in A-level
That's really good, well done! Do you know what you want to do for uni? (:
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(Original post by rm_27)
That's really good, well done! Do you know what you want to do for uni? (:
Hoping for maths at Cambridge.
Biology is my fifth most relevant A-level, but I'm still good at it.
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(Original post by morgan8002)
Hoping for maths at Cambridge.
Biology is my fifth most relevant A-level, but I'm still good at it.
That's brilliant, best of luck. If you don't mind me being a hassle, I've just got a question. When transcription occurs, the DNA unzips as you said, and the RNA (which you stated was single stranded) joins with a single strand of DNA. Does the RNA form complementary bases to that of the DNA strand, which leads it to go out of the nucleus to the ribosomes,etc...?
So for example, in the DNA strand there is TACG, would RNA produce AUGC bases? Or will it copy it?
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(Original post by rm_27)
That's brilliant, best of luck. If you don't mind me being a hassle, I've just got a question. When transcription occurs, the DNA unzips as you said, and the RNA (which you stated was single stranded) joins with a single strand of DNA. Does the RNA form complementary bases to that of the DNA strand, which leads it to go out of the nucleus to the ribosomes,etc...?So for example, in the DNA strand there is TACG, would RNA produce AUGC bases? Or will it copy it?
The mRNA strand forms complimentary to the DNA strand, so TACG becomes AUGC.The DNA already has two complimentary strands though, so the mRNA will be the same as the DNA strand that isn't being used(except for thymine becomes uracil and deoxyribose becomes ribose).
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