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    Hello everyone,

    I really need help understanding the question for my seen exam in January.

    "Compare and contrast the different levels of causality using examples of behaviour covered within the topics of this module"

    I don't need help answering it I just wish to understand what it's asking me to do. An example of the modules covered were Memory, competition, attractiveness etc.

    Does anyone have any idea of what I need to do or steps I can take answering it? Any help is appreciated.
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    (Original post by Lordoftheloo)
    Hello everyone,

    I really need help understanding the question for my seen exam in January.

    "Compare and contrast the different levels of causality using examples of behaviour covered within the topics of this module"

    I don't need help answering it I just wish to understand what it's asking me to do. An example of the modules covered were Memory, competition, attractiveness etc.

    Does anyone have any idea of what I need to do or steps I can take answering it? Any help is appreciated.
    I think its probably asking about different levels of explanations. Tinbergens' "four questions": Evolutionary (ultimate) explanations: function and phylogeny, and mechanistic (proximate) explanations: mechanism and development. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinberg...ons#1_Function

    As an example, lets take evolution of episodic memory.

    Function episodic memory: we would ask why animals need episodic memory, what purpose does it have?
    Phylogeny episodic memory: when did episodic memory evolve? Do other apes, or mammals have it? Has it convergently evolved in other animals (such as corvid birds?)

    Mechanism episodic memory: what neural substrates (e.g. hippocampus) does EM rely on?
    Development episodic memory: when does EM develop in humans / other animals that might have it?
 
 
 
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