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    I am doing an access course to follow my dreams of being a paramedic but I am really struggling with these questions, I have answered most of them. Can you help me by offering advice on the ones I have answered and help on the ones I haven't? I really need a distinction on this one!

    In red are the competition notes for the questions and in blue are my notes!

    TAQ1: In a short account explain skeletal and bone features which aid carry out its roles. Remember to link structure and function for both. (300 words) (326 words)

    Bones are composed of osteocytes, found in the bone matrix, consisting of calcium and phosphorus compounds interwoven with collagen fibres. Collagen is a fibrous protein, molecules consist of polypeptides made from amino acids, nearly all of which are glycine, due to such a small size three strands lie close together forming a tight coil, hydrogen bonds bond these strands. Cross-links between collagen intertwine in a triple helix form of fibres providing tremendous tensile strength. There are two properties provided by bone tissue; compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is deposited in sheets called Lamellae arranged as cylinders inside cylinders, nerves and blood run in a central canal, giving immense strength due to compacted structure. Compact bone is the shaft of long bone where strength and rigidity are important. Lamella of spongy bone is arranged in a criss-cross pattern; due to its honeycomb shape has excellent shock-absorbing properties. Spongy bone forms the rounded head of long bones which absorbs shocks and jolts of movement.

    Human Skeletons are constructed of 206 bones, in-turn these bones are separated into two separate classes, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises skull and vertebral column, 80 bones total, spanning skull, spine and rib cage. Cranium protects the brain, mandible the lower jaw allows chewing movements. Ribs protect the heart and lungs. The vertebral column contains 26 individual bones held together by ligaments, separated by cartilage discs, it provides support for the axis of the body, and they also protect the nerve cord.

    Appendicular skeleton which is made up of the limbs and limb girdles containing a total of 126 bones, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs. The pelvic girdle make up the pelvic bone composed of three bones together with the sacrum at the back, this solid arrangement of bones provides stability to the body. The Pectoral girdle is made up of scapula and the clavicle which is a loose arrangement of bones once again providing flexibility.

    TAQ2: Complete a table similar to the one below (250 words) (271 words)


    TAQ3: Part 1 Explain what joint and muscle movements are involved in running and how are they involved? (200 words) (220 words)

    Slow twitch fibres are used when running at slow speed as speed increases fast twitch fibres are used. Driving phase requires hip and knee joint to be extended, whilst the ankle plantar flexed, extension is where two adjoining bones move further apart, engaging; gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. The quadriceps muscles bend the hip and straighten the knee; quads stabilize the knee and help absorb shock impact of landing. Hip and knee joints extend, gluteus maximus contracts in order for hamstrings and quadriceps to lengthen, as the leg touches the ground the body is propelled forwards due to muscles engaging in concentric isotonic contractions. Gluteal muscles also play a role in extending hip whilst stabilizing the buttocks to help maintain posture. Hip rotator muscles stabilise hip joint while running ensues to contribute to good running form.

    As the body is propelled forwards recovery phase ensues. Concentric isotonic contractions of the hamstring raise the thigh and bend the knee which straightens the hip. Hamstrings also work to bend the knee in order for the running motion to continue. Lower leg muscles soleus and gastocnemius extend and flex each foot as landing and pushing off occurs, to help absorb impact. Gluteal muscles help to straighten the hip once pushing off, whilst engaging in order for the body to remain upright.

    TAQ3: Explain what joint and muscle movement are involved in working at a computer in an office and how are they involved? (200 words)

    Currently I am on 282 words, I am massively over my total limit of 220 words (it’s 10% above or below on each question, I am not really sure what I need to write about!) beneath is a bit i’m not sure if i need to include or not!

    The main joints and muscles which are used when using a computer are vertebrae in order to maintain posture whilst also enabling the neck to move, the knees being in a bent position. The main movement is in the shoulder girdle, elbows and wrists. Due to the sitting position most of the body’s joints and muscles are inactive, aside from the biceps and triceps
    All muscles have antagonistic pairs, in the arm there is the tricep and the bicep. In order for the arms to move the bicep must remain contracted and the tricep relaxed, so that the arm is able to move freely, in the bent typing position, as when the bicep contracts the forearm is raised. The elbow is in flexion for the hands to be able to comfortably type. The majority of the work is performed by the hand; wrist, knuckles and fingers in an office setting due to working with a keyboard. The metacarpus bones extend from the second row of carpal bones, they are the fingers. One of these bones is combined with the proximal phalanx making up the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb, enabling more movement in the thumb. The fingers consist of three individual bones and joints all capable of flexion and extension, however most movements begin in the forearm, extensor tendons for extending the hand to the tips of the fingers and the flexor tendons which run through the palms to the fingers. Between the individual metacarpal bones lies short muscles of the hand allowing the spread of fingers, abduction, and the contraction of fingers, adduction, which is essential for typing. These muscles also help flex the metacarpophalangeal joints allowing extention of the fingers.

    Not sure if i need to include any of this.
    The thenar eminence and the hypothenar eminence muscles
    Two groups of more powerful muscles in the hand itself make up the thenar eminence (at the base of the thumb) and the hypothenar eminence (controlling the little finger). The thenar eminence helps the thumb to move. This includes the essential movement of opposition, allowing the thumb and the tips of the remaining four fingers to touch. A separate muscle for flexing (adductor) can help move the thumb towards the palm. The muscles of the hypothenar eminence are mainly used for extending and bending the little finger, as well as for tightening the skin that covers the hypothenar eminence.
    Lumbricals
    The lumbricals of the hand are four thin, worm-shaped muscles that help bend the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the fingers.


    TAQ 4: Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to carry out their roles? (300 words)

    Skeletal muscles are a large percentage of the bodies tissue and muscle, it covers the skeleton, this enables movement of the body. In order to maintain posture the skeletal muscles make tiny adjustments to keep the body upright. Another key tole of skeletal muscles is give the body it’s shape as the muscles hold the bones in the correct positions, preventing the joints from dislocating. The facial skeletal muscles are directly attached to the skin which with tiny contrasts forms facial expressions. Heat production is a by-product of muscle activity performed by skeletal muscles. Strong, springy tendons connected to rough patches of bone attach the skeletal muscle to the body.

    Voluntary movement controls skeletal muscles within the body, in order for the body to move skeletal muscles must contract.

    Describe the structure and functions of skeletal muscle

    TAQ5: ‘Movement requires muscles and all muscles have antagonist pairs’. Using this as the title, write a short account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is vital for the co-ordinated movement of an organism. (200 words)

    Discuss muscle contraction in relation to movement
    Explore the relationship of antagonist pairs

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/Combine/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.jpg[/IMG]
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    Hello there! Just reading through your questions now, what I've noticed is that you've got a lot of words written down - but very few of those answer the original question (I'm not doing a medicine/anatomy based degree, so I'm afraid I can't help out with all of them!)

    Take the last question for example:

    TAQ 4: Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to carry out their roles? (300 words)

    Skeletal muscles are a large percentage of the bodies tissue and muscle, it covers the skeleton, this enables movement of the body. In order to maintain posture the skeletal muscles make tiny adjustments to keep the body upright. Another key tole of skeletal muscles is give the body it’s shape as the muscles hold the bones in the correct positions, preventing the joints from dislocating. The facial skeletal muscles are directly attached to the skin which with tiny contrasts forms facial expressions. Heat production is a by-product of muscle activity performed by skeletal muscles. Strong, springy tendons connected to rough patches of bone attach the skeletal muscle to the body.

    Voluntary movement controls skeletal muscles within the body, in order for the body to move skeletal muscles must contract.

    You've written some information about muscles, but you haven't answered what the structures are that allow movement. There's only a brief amount of info about the tendons up there!
    There's no information on the action of myosin and actin filaments, nor the neuromuscular junction, nor the way that each of the muscle striations are regularly organised in parallel in the same direction, allowing for the most efficient use of muscle contraction.

    TAQ 3 looks brilliant to me, but it's well outside my range of knowledge here!

    Again for TAQ1, I'll embolden the sections of the text I think effectively answer the question, whilst putting in some tips of my own:

    Bones are composed of osteocytes, found in the bone matrix, consisting of calcium and phosphorus compounds interwoven with collagen fibres. Just to make things clear to whoever is marking your work - bone is made by osteocytes, bone itself is a mixture of hydroxyapitate (carbon/phosphate) crystals and the organic collagen matrix.

    Collagen is a fibrous protein, molecules consist of polypeptides made from amino acids, nearly all of which are glycine, due to such a small size three strands lie close together forming a tight coil, hydrogen bonds bond these strands. Cross-links between collagen intertwine in a triple helix form of fibres providing tremendous tensile strength. There are two properties provided by bone tissue; compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is deposited in sheets called Lamellae arranged as cylinders inside cylinders, nerves and blood run in a central canal (This is called a Haversion Canal, by the way!), giving immense strength due to compacted structure. Compact bone is the shaft of long bone where strength and rigidity are important. What type of forces does compact bone resist best? Is it compressive, tensile, sheer or torsion? Lamella of spongy bone is arranged in a criss-cross pattern; due to its honeycomb shape has excellent shock-absorbing properties. Spongy bone forms the rounded head of long bones which absorbs shocks and jolts of movement.

    Human Skeletons are constructed of 206 bones, in-turn these bones are separated into two separate classes, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises skull and vertebral column Strictly speaking, it is the skull and vertebral TRUNK. The vertebral column is strictly the spine, and does not include the ribcage, hyoid bone etc. Careful about accuracy!, 80 bones total, spanning skull, spine and rib cage. Cranium protects the brain, mandible the lower jaw The mandible is the lower jaw, be careful about grammar too! allows chewing movements. Ribs protect the heart and lungs. The vertebral column contains 26 individual bones held together by ligaments, separated by cartilage discs, it provides support for the axis of the body, and they also protect the nerve spinal! cord. Remember to keep linking your points back to the original question. E.g, densely packed lamellae in the cranium keeps the brain thoroughly supported... the vertebral column allows movement because of the flexible cartilaginous joints between them. Also, the human spine is made up of 24 articulating veterbrae and 9 in the fused coccyx - that's 33 individual bones total.

    Appendicular skeleton which is made up of the limbs and limb girdles containing a total of 126 bones, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs. The pelvic girdle make up the pelvic bone composed of three bones together with the sacrum at the back, this solid arrangement of bones provides stability to the body. The Pectoral girdle is made up of scapula and the clavicle which is a loose arrangement of bones once again providing flexibility.

    I have no idea how detailed your answer is supposed to be - but you want it packed with as much relevant information as you can. I'd advise organising your answers under paragraphs which clearly mention the functions of bone, such as:

    1) Histological structure of bone, strength properties at the molecular level
    2) Shock absorbing, and protection of the inner organs. - Protective function
    3) Movement and articulation between bones with cartilaginous joints - Mechanical function, for support of the muscles and allows movement.
    4) I noticed you haven't mentioned anything about Calcium/Fat storage, bone remodelling or white blood cells from the bone marrow. That level of detail is not needed?
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    (Original post by FutureParamedicG)
    I am doing an access course to follow my dreams of being a paramedic but I am really struggling with these questions, I have answered most of them. Can you help me by offering advice on the ones I have answered and help on the ones I haven't? I really need a distinction on this one!

    In red are the competition notes for the questions and in blue are my notes!

    TAQ1: In a short account explain skeletal and bone features which aid carry out its roles. Remember to link structure and function for both. (300 words) (326 words)

    Bones are composed of osteocytes, found in the bone matrix, consisting of calcium and phosphorus compounds interwoven with collagen fibres. Collagen is a fibrous protein, molecules consist of polypeptides made from amino acids, nearly all of which are glycine, due to such a small size three strands lie close together forming a tight coil, hydrogen bonds bond these strands. Cross-links between collagen intertwine in a triple helix form of fibres providing tremendous tensile strength. There are two properties provided by bone tissue; compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is deposited in sheets called Lamellae arranged as cylinders inside cylinders, nerves and blood run in a central canal, giving immense strength due to compacted structure. Compact bone is the shaft of long bone where strength and rigidity are important. Lamella of spongy bone is arranged in a criss-cross pattern; due to its honeycomb shape has excellent shock-absorbing properties. Spongy bone forms the rounded head of long bones which absorbs shocks and jolts of movement.

    Human Skeletons are constructed of 206 bones, in-turn these bones are separated into two separate classes, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises skull and vertebral column, 80 bones total, spanning skull, spine and rib cage. Cranium protects the brain, mandible the lower jaw allows chewing movements. Ribs protect the heart and lungs. The vertebral column contains 26 individual bones held together by ligaments, separated by cartilage discs, it provides support for the axis of the body, and they also protect the nerve cord.

    Appendicular skeleton which is made up of the limbs and limb girdles containing a total of 126 bones, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs. The pelvic girdle make up the pelvic bone composed of three bones together with the sacrum at the back, this solid arrangement of bones provides stability to the body. The Pectoral girdle is made up of scapula and the clavicle which is a loose arrangement of bones once again providing flexibility.

    TAQ2: Complete a table similar to the one below (250 words) (271 words)


    TAQ3: Part 1 Explain what joint and muscle movements are involved in running and how are they involved? (200 words) (220 words)

    Slow twitch fibres are used when running at slow speed as speed increases fast twitch fibres are used. Driving phase requires hip and knee joint to be extended, whilst the ankle plantar flexed, extension is where two adjoining bones move further apart, engaging; gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. The quadriceps muscles bend the hip and straighten the knee; quads stabilize the knee and help absorb shock impact of landing. Hip and knee joints extend, gluteus maximus contracts in order for hamstrings and quadriceps to lengthen, as the leg touches the ground the body is propelled forwards due to muscles engaging in concentric isotonic contractions. Gluteal muscles also play a role in extending hip whilst stabilizing the buttocks to help maintain posture. Hip rotator muscles stabilise hip joint while running ensues to contribute to good running form.

    As the body is propelled forwards recovery phase ensues. Concentric isotonic contractions of the hamstring raise the thigh and bend the knee which straightens the hip. Hamstrings also work to bend the knee in order for the running motion to continue. Lower leg muscles soleus and gastocnemius extend and flex each foot as landing and pushing off occurs, to help absorb impact. Gluteal muscles help to straighten the hip once pushing off, whilst engaging in order for the body to remain upright.

    TAQ3: Explain what joint and muscle movement are involved in working at a computer in an office and how are they involved? (200 words)

    Currently I am on 282 words, I am massively over my total limit of 220 words (it’s 10% above or below on each question, I am not really sure what I need to write about!) beneath is a bit i’m not sure if i need to include or not!

    The main joints and muscles which are used when using a computer are vertebrae in order to maintain posture whilst also enabling the neck to move, the knees being in a bent position. The main movement is in the shoulder girdle, elbows and wrists. Due to the sitting position most of the body’s joints and muscles are inactive, aside from the biceps and triceps
    All muscles have antagonistic pairs, in the arm there is the tricep and the bicep. In order for the arms to move the bicep must remain contracted and the tricep relaxed, so that the arm is able to move freely, in the bent typing position, as when the bicep contracts the forearm is raised. The elbow is in flexion for the hands to be able to comfortably type. The majority of the work is performed by the hand; wrist, knuckles and fingers in an office setting due to working with a keyboard. The metacarpus bones extend from the second row of carpal bones, they are the fingers. One of these bones is combined with the proximal phalanx making up the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb, enabling more movement in the thumb. The fingers consist of three individual bones and joints all capable of flexion and extension, however most movements begin in the forearm, extensor tendons for extending the hand to the tips of the fingers and the flexor tendons which run through the palms to the fingers. Between the individual metacarpal bones lies short muscles of the hand allowing the spread of fingers, abduction, and the contraction of fingers, adduction, which is essential for typing. These muscles also help flex the metacarpophalangeal joints allowing extention of the fingers.

    Not sure if i need to include any of this.
    The thenar eminence and the hypothenar eminence muscles
    Two groups of more powerful muscles in the hand itself make up the thenar eminence (at the base of the thumb) and the hypothenar eminence (controlling the little finger). The thenar eminence helps the thumb to move. This includes the essential movement of opposition, allowing the thumb and the tips of the remaining four fingers to touch. A separate muscle for flexing (adductor) can help move the thumb towards the palm. The muscles of the hypothenar eminence are mainly used for extending and bending the little finger, as well as for tightening the skin that covers the hypothenar eminence.
    Lumbricals
    The lumbricals of the hand are four thin, worm-shaped muscles that help bend the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the fingers.


    TAQ 4: Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to carry out their roles? (300 words)

    Skeletal muscles are a large percentage of the bodies tissue and muscle, it covers the skeleton, this enables movement of the body. In order to maintain posture the skeletal muscles make tiny adjustments to keep the body upright. Another key tole of skeletal muscles is give the body it’s shape as the muscles hold the bones in the correct positions, preventing the joints from dislocating. The facial skeletal muscles are directly attached to the skin which with tiny contrasts forms facial expressions. Heat production is a by-product of muscle activity performed by skeletal muscles. Strong, springy tendons connected to rough patches of bone attach the skeletal muscle to the body.

    Voluntary movement controls skeletal muscles within the body, in order for the body to move skeletal muscles must contract.

    Describe the structure and functions of skeletal muscle

    TAQ5: ‘Movement requires muscles and all muscles have antagonist pairs’. Using this as the title, write a short account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is vital for the co-ordinated movement of an organism. (200 words)

    Discuss muscle contraction in relation to movement
    Explore the relationship of antagonist pairs

    [IMG]file:///C:/Users/Combine/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.jpg[/IMG]
    Wow - this is a lot of information to answer and unfortunately I cannot help you completely reduce your answer. I will say that you need to ensure that you have covered the learning outcomes and not gone too far off track. That will help you to pin down what you need to talk about in your answer. I can see from briefly reading your work, you have not discussed the sliding filament hypothesis of muscle contraction. This is AC 2.1 in the Skeleton and Muscles module on our course.

    Get a copy of your Assessment Criteria and Learning outcomes and then compare what you have written to these. (the questions set are designed to help you answer them in the best way). One of the AC related to bad posture - so I should think that you need to cover that in your answer relating to computer usage.

    Hopefully that helps you review your work
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    Hi hun how did you do on this in the end? Did you manage to reduce your writing enough? x
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    Hi there,

    I'm currently working on this assessment myself. My problem is TAQ 2. For the table are we simply talking about freely movable joints or all joints?? i'm bit confused by the criteria.

    thanks
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    Hi

    It's just the freely moveable joints. My tutor sent me this.

    NotesTAQ 1:Can you identify the internal structures of a typical bone?

    TAQ 2: Note that you only need to classify synovial joints.
    When examining the range of movements consider what allows orrestricts these at each type of synovial joint.
    TAQ 3: Remember that your focus should be the muscles that act as prime moversfor specific movement patterns
    TAQ 4: Ensure that specific internal structures of muscle tissue are related tofunction
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    Thank you so much. This has really helped
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    Taq 3 isn't very nice lol
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    Hi again, so i submitted this assessment and just as i thought, i have a resubmit!! TAQ 3. Brilliant. How did you get on with yours in the end? i knew i would have problems with this. I have my tutors feedback but it still hasn't helped me. literally pulling my hair out!
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    I hand mine in tonight/tomorrow and I'm behind for various reasons so an all nighter for me tonight 😂 What were the tutor notes? Who do you have?
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    I'm studying with the distance learning centre. Are you?
    My tutor is brilliant to be honest but I'm still confused. She just said I need to put emphasis on the joints, as I wrote too much about the movement of the muscles
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    Hi

    Yes I am, I have Alan for biology. I'm retaking maths too (nightmare)
    I'm unsure about my answers for taq 3.. I've brooded over it and redone it so many times I'm now behind. I might email some of mine over to him and see what he thinks.
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    I'm with Janet. I'm also doing maths!! Hard work isn't it. I'm behind with that and in panicking too as I've got the exams soon 😢
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    Yeah me too, may. I'm going to put my diploma on hold until after the exam I think. I hate maths lol
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    (Original post by artemissy)
    Taq 3 isn't very nice lol
    What do you mean? As I think she's done really well in TAQ 3.
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    (Original post by FutureParamedicG)
    I am doing an access course to follow my dreams of being a paramedic but I am really struggling with these questions, I have answered most of them. Can you help me by offering advice on the ones I have answered and help on the ones I haven't? I really need a distinction on this one!

    In red are the competition notes for the questions and in blue are my notes!

    TAQ1: In a short account explain skeletal and bone features which aid carry out its roles. Remember to link structure and function for both. (300 words) (326 words)

    Bones are composed of osteocytes, found in the bone matrix, consisting of calcium and phosphorus compounds interwoven with collagen fibres. Collagen is a fibrous protein, molecules consist of polypeptides made from amino acids, nearly all of which are glycine, due to such a small size three strands lie close together forming a tight coil, hydrogen bonds bond these strands. Cross-links between collagen intertwine in a triple helix form of fibres providing tremendous tensile strength. There are two properties provided by bone tissue; compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is deposited in sheets called Lamellae arranged as cylinders inside cylinders, nerves and blood run in a central canal, giving immense strength due to compacted structure. Compact bone is the shaft of long bone where strength and rigidity are important. Lamella of spongy bone is arranged in a criss-cross pattern; due to its honeycomb shape has excellent shock-absorbing properties. Spongy bone forms the rounded head of long bones which absorbs shocks and jolts of movement.

    Human Skeletons are constructed of 206 bones, in-turn these bones are separated into two separate classes, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises skull and vertebral column, 80 bones total, spanning skull, spine and rib cage. Cranium protects the brain, mandible the lower jaw allows chewing movements. Ribs protect the heart and lungs. The vertebral column contains 26 individual bones held together by ligaments, separated by cartilage discs, it provides support for the axis of the body, and they also protect the nerve cord.

    Appendicular skeleton which is made up of the limbs and limb girdles containing a total of 126 bones, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs. The pelvic girdle make up the pelvic bone composed of three bones together with the sacrum at the back, this solid arrangement of bones provides stability to the body. The Pectoral girdle is made up of scapula and the clavicle which is a loose arrangement of bones once again providing flexibility.

    TAQ2: Complete a table similar to the one below (250 words) (271 words)


    TAQ3: Part 1 Explain what joint and muscle movements are involved in running and how are they involved? (200 words) (220 words)

    Slow twitch fibres are used when running at slow speed as speed increases fast twitch fibres are used. Driving phase requires hip and knee joint to be extended, whilst the ankle plantar flexed, extension is where two adjoining bones move further apart, engaging; gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. The quadriceps muscles bend the hip and straighten the knee; quads stabilize the knee and help absorb shock impact of landing. Hip and knee joints extend, gluteus maximus contracts in order for hamstrings and quadriceps to lengthen, as the leg touches the ground the body is propelled forwards due to muscles engaging in concentric isotonic contractions. Gluteal muscles also play a role in extending hip whilst stabilizing the buttocks to help maintain posture. Hip rotator muscles stabilise hip joint while running ensues to contribute to good running form.

    As the body is propelled forwards recovery phase ensues. Concentric isotonic contractions of the hamstring raise the thigh and bend the knee which straightens the hip. Hamstrings also work to bend the knee in order for the running motion to continue. Lower leg muscles soleus and gastocnemius extend and flex each foot as landing and pushing off occurs, to help absorb impact. Gluteal muscles help to straighten the hip once pushing off, whilst engaging in order for the body to remain upright.

    TAQ3: Explain what joint and muscle movement are involved in working at a computer in an office and how are they involved? (200 words)

    Currently I am on 282 words, I am massively over my total limit of 220 words (it’s 10% above or below on each question, I am not really sure what I need to write about!) beneath is a bit i’m not sure if i need to include or not!

    The main joints and muscles which are used when using a computer are vertebrae in order to maintain posture whilst also enabling the neck to move, the knees being in a bent position. The main movement is in the shoulder girdle, elbows and wrists. Due to the sitting position most of the body’s joints and muscles are inactive, aside from the biceps and triceps
    All muscles have antagonistic pairs, in the arm there is the tricep and the bicep. In order for the arms to move the bicep must remain contracted and the tricep relaxed, so that the arm is able to move freely, in the bent typing position, as when the bicep contracts the forearm is raised. The elbow is in flexion for the hands to be able to comfortably type. The majority of the work is performed by the hand; wrist, knuckles and fingers in an office setting due to working with a keyboard. The metacarpus bones extend from the second row of carpal bones, they are the fingers. One of these bones is combined with the proximal phalanx making up the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb, enabling more movement in the thumb. The fingers consist of three individual bones and joints all capable of flexion and extension, however most movements begin in the forearm, extensor tendons for extending the hand to the tips of the fingers and the flexor tendons which run through the palms to the fingers. Between the individual metacarpal bones lies short muscles of the hand allowing the spread of fingers, abduction, and the contraction of fingers, adduction, which is essential for typing. These muscles also help flex the metacarpophalangeal joints allowing extention of the fingers.

    Not sure if i need to include any of this.
    The thenar eminence and the hypothenar eminence muscles
    Two groups of more powerful muscles in the hand itself make up the thenar eminence (at the base of the thumb) and the hypothenar eminence (controlling the little finger). The thenar eminence helps the thumb to move. This includes the essential movement of opposition, allowing the thumb and the tips of the remaining four fingers to touch. A separate muscle for flexing (adductor) can help move the thumb towards the palm. The muscles of the hypothenar eminence are mainly used for extending and bending the little finger, as well as for tightening the skin that covers the hypothenar eminence.
    Lumbricals
    The lumbricals of the hand are four thin, worm-shaped muscles that help bend the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the fingers.

    TAQ 4: Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to carry out their roles? (300 words)

    Skeletal muscles are a large percentage of the bodies tissue and muscle, it covers the skeleton, this enables movement of the body. In order to maintain posture the skeletal muscles make tiny adjustments to keep the body upright. Another key tole of skeletal muscles is give the body it’s shape as the muscles hold the bones in the correct positions, preventing the joints from dislocating. The facial skeletal muscles are directly attached to the skin which with tiny contrasts forms facial expressions. Heat production is a by-product of muscle activity performed by skeletal muscles. Strong, springy tendons connected to rough patches of bone attach the skeletal muscle to the body.

    Voluntary movement controls skeletal muscles within the body, in order for the body to move skeletal muscles must contract.

    Describe the structure and functions of skeletal muscle

    TAQ5: ‘Movement requires muscles and all muscles have antagonist pairs’. Using this as the title, write a short account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is vital for the co-ordinated movement of an organism. (200 words)

    Discuss muscle contraction in relation to movement
    Explore the relationship of antagonist pairs
    [img]file:///C:/Users/Combine/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.jpg[/img]

    Hi hun, how did you do in the end? I'm assuming you did really well in TAQ 3 as it looks brilliant. :-) x
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    Only the freely moveable
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    Hi, im also studying this course and struggling to find reference material for TAQ 3, I've searched online with little success and looked through my text books. Could you point me in the direction of what reference material, sites or links you used, thank you.
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    (Original post by Chris326)
    Hi, im also studying this course and struggling to find reference material for TAQ 3, I've searched online with little success and looked through my text books. Could you point me in the direction of what reference material, sites or links you used, thank you.
    Hi,
    I am currently writing my assessment for this topic and struggled on TAQ 3.
    I emailed my tutor and she sent me
    http://www.livestrong.com/article/42...ing-sprinting/

    I also came across this
    http://www.brianmac.co.uk/moveanal.htm

    Hope they help!
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    (Original post by monkee641)
    Hi again, so i submitted this assessment and just as i thought, i have a resubmit!! TAQ 3. Brilliant. How did you get on with yours in the end? i knew i would have problems with this. I have my tutors feedback but it still hasn't helped me. literally pulling my hair out!
    Hi, I'm doing this now. Well attempting to whilst my kids are on school break - it's proving difficult. Did you have to resubmit all Taq's or just the one for taq3? I was confused by your comment. How did you get on with the resubmit?
 
 
 
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