Anatomy SOMEBODY HELP MEWatch this thread
This is what I have;
A typical bone is created by three distinct layers. The outer layer of the bone called the periosteum which contains nerves, blood vessels and lymph vessels which are all passed through to the bone. Its current role is to surround the bone with its tough fibrous sheath. Inside the periosteum is the compact bone, which only contains a few spaces between its hard components. It shapes together the external layer of all of the bones and then makes the bulk of diaphyses. The compact bones are there to provide any sort of protection and support and resist the stresses produced by any movement or weight. Inside of the compact bone is the spongy bone. This is the bone that makes up most of the bone tissue of irregular, short and flat shaped bones.
The skeleton has four main functions to ensure its organism is sustained; Helping the body move, ensuring blood cells are created, supporting the body and protecting some of the vital organs in the body. If the body was not supported individuals would not be able to stay up right. The skeleton holds a vital role for the protection of the body, by protecting vital organs such as the skull which protects the brain, the ribcage protects the heart/lungs and the backbone which protects the spinal cord, without this protection the vital organs would get damaged. Not all bones are able to move as they are firmly fixed together such as the skull, however other bones are joined together by flexible joints where the muscle is needed to be able to move the bones which are attached by the joint. Different blood cells such as the red blood cell and the microorganisms are stored in the bone marrow, this is vital to stay alive as the red blood cell carries oxygen around the body, with the white blood cell getting rid of any harmful microorganisms found in the body.
BBC (2016) Function of the skeleton. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guide...7ty/revision/1 (Accessed: 5 October 2016).
User, S. (2016) The skeleton & bones. Available at: http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/bone_structure.php (Accessed: 5 October 2016).
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DLC Learning materials: Study Skills - How to use I.T.
• Skull Sutures
• Roots of the Teeth
• Fibrous joints are linked by solid connective tissue consisting mainly of collagen.
• There are virtually no movement within these joints.
• Epiphyseal Plates
• Pubic Symphysis
• Cartilaginous is the link between the articulating bone which contains a thin layer of cartilage.
• Cartilaginous joint is limited in the way it can move therefore, the types of cartilaginous are classed as amphiarthrosis.
• Top of the neck
• Hinge joints such as the knee and elbow have a convex surface where one of the bones fit into the concave surface of another bone.
• Pivot joints such as the top of the neck either have a curved or a sharp surface. The pivot joint has one axes; it allows rotation around its own axis only.
• Ball and socket joints such as the hip and the shoulder create the ball-like surface of one bone which fits into a cuplike depression of another bone.
• Hinge joints only allow extension and flexion to the joint this is anything from straightening and bending the joint. The bones are able to flex this is to ensure that the parts come closer together as the angle between the joints decrease.
• Pivot joints allow any sort of rotation movement around a single axis.
• Ball and socket joints allow the greatest motion of the joints such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation.
Boundless (2016) Classification of joints on the basis of structure and function. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/biology/te...ion-820-12063/ (Accessed: 5 October 2016).
Publishing, A. (no date) Joints and Ligaments | learn skeleton anatomy. Available at: http://learn.visiblebody.com/skeleto...-and-ligaments (Accessed: 5 October 2016).
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Your primary muscles when running will receive the most impact from your movement. Your primary muscles include your quads, hamstrings, gluteus maximus, calf muscles and your incisors. When running you are driving your body which requires your knee and hip joint to be extended and your ankle plantar becomes flexed. Once your hip and knee joints are prolonged, the gluteus maximus contracts, this then enables your hamstring and quadriceps to lengthen. As your leg touches the ground the body is driven forward due to the muscles which engage in concentric isotonic contractions. The gluteal muscle which is situated in the buttocks assists with extending the hip helping to maintain a good posture. The calf muscles job which is merged by the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles taper is to ensure that the heel is lifted from the ground to allow forward movement. As your body starts to go through the recovery phase, concentric isotonic contractions of the hamstring bend the knee and raise the thigh which straighten up the hip. Your hamstrings work hard to ensure that the knee is bent this is to ensure that the running motion can carry on.
hl (2016) Hip joint anatomy for runners. Available at: http://www.rehab4runners.co.uk/runni...atomy-runners/ (Accessed: 6 October 2016).
(No Date) Available at: http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercis...-calf-muscle#1 (Accessed: 6 October 2016).
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When operating at a computer, you are using different types of muscles and joints, such as your neck, shoulder and elbow just to name a few. Making a motion of what ever sort big or small, your brain will automatically send messages down to your nervous system telling your muscles to contract. The majority of your work is achieved by the wrist, hands, knuckles and fingers this is due to working at a keyboard. The fingers are capable of flexion and extension, however most of the movement to your hands come from the forearm, as you will be using your extensor tendons, this is to ensure the hand is extended which then gets moved down to the tops of the fingers and the flexor tendons which runs through to the palms of the fingers. Your neck contains your upper body spinal cord, this helps control your bodies movements and is connected to the brain, which then sends off signals to other parts of the body. The shoulder has the highest range of motion out of all of the joints which are in the body. Its primary role is to deliver complete power and range of motion to the arm.
(No Date) Available at: https://www.pearsonschoolsandfecolle...er1_sample.pdf (Accessed: 6 October 2016).
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Skeletal muscles create movement by exerting force on tendons, they are attached to the bones of the skeleton. They are composed of thousands of muscle fibers which are joined together and wrapped in a connective tissue covering. In order to retain posture, the skeletal muscles make tiny alterations to keep the body upright, if it wasn’t for the skeletal muscles the bones would be unable to stay in their correct positions, which would then lead the bone to dislocate. Skeletal muscle contractions stabilize joints and help uphold the body position. In order for the body to move the skeletal muscles must contract, however the two articulating bones usually do not move equally in response to the contraction. One of the bones will remain still, this is because there are other muscles being used which are contracting and drawing the bone in the opposite direction. There are three different structures of the connective tissue components of the skeletal muscle; The endomysium which lies outside of the cell membrane and covers the single muscle fibers. The perimysium covers distinct bundles of fibers and the epimysium which cover the different groups of the fasciculi. The bones and joints play an important part in skeletal muscle as the bones serve as the levers. The joints act as fulcrums for the levers which are the effort that causes movement and the resistance which fights against movement.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (2015) ‘Skeletal muscle | anatomy’, in Encyclopædia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/science/skeletal-muscle (Accessed: 7 October 2016).
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The contraction cycle consists of four distinct stages; ATP hydrolysis which attaches itself to myosin, myosin then forms a cross bridge with actin, Pi disassociates itself, myosin then goes through the power stroke stage, ATP must then detach its self of myosin to break the cross bridge. Most skeletal muscles are arranged into antagonistic pairs one of the muscles contracts to cause a desired action known as the agonist or the prime mover, the other muscle stretches and supplies to the effects of the prime mover this muscle is known as the antagonist. If there are any unwanted movements or if the agonist needs support in stabilization, then this is done by the synergist. The fixator ensures that the prime mover can act more efficiently. If a muscle contracts to generate any sort of movement then this is known as an isotonic contraction, as the fibres contract the muscle shortens. When the fibres contract with each other the muscle lengthens. The arm is a synergist muscle joint and produces motion in concert with agonist muscles. When the forearm is flexed the brachioradialis and brachialis act as synergist muscles, this aids the biceps into pulling the forearm up towards the shoulder. Like wise when the triceps muscle contracts it enables the forearm to be in a position to go back down.
Boundless (2016) ATP and muscle contraction. Available at: https://www.boundless.com/biol ogy/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/the-musculoskeletal-system-38/muscle-contraction-and-locomotion-218/atp-and-muscle-contraction-826-12069/ (Accessed: 7 October 2016).
MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT (no date) Available at: http://www.edu.xunta.es/ftpserver/po...A2/MUSCLES.htm (Accessed: 7 October 2016).
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I shared an interactive map of the body, you can find it by searching 'health line body maps' - an excellent resource
The youtube playlist can be found by searching youtube for 'anatomy and physiology jellyandme' and filter your search for playlists.
It's a playlist of videos I've found helpful for this lot of taqs. Can't find anything decent on the muscles used for sitting though.
I've had a few extensions on this! Thanks for the help with sources
I've had a few extensions on this! Thanks for the help with sources
How are you getting on?