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Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Skeleton and Muscles TAQs

TAQ1: In a short account explain skeletal and bone features which aid carry out its roles. Remember to link structure and function for both. (300 words) (326 words)

Bones are composed of osteocytes, found in the bone matrix, consisting of calcium and phosphorus compounds interwoven with collagen fibres. Collagen is a fibrous protein, molecules consist of polypeptides made from amino acids, nearly all of which are glycine, due to such a small size three strands lie close together forming a tight coil, hydrogen bonds bond these strands. Cross-links between collagen intertwine in a triple helix form of fibres providing tremendous tensile strength. There are two properties provided by bone tissue; compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is deposited in sheets called Lamellae arranged as cylinders inside cylinders, nerves and blood run in a central canal, giving immense strength due to compacted structure. Compact bone is the shaft of long bone where strength and rigidity are important. Lamella of spongy bone is arranged in a criss-cross pattern; due to its honeycomb shape has excellent shock-absorbing properties. Spongy bone forms the rounded head of long bones which absorbs shocks and jolts of movement.

Human Skeletons are constructed of 206 bones, in-turn these bones are separated into two separate classes, axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton. The Axial skeleton comprises skull and vertebral column, 80 bones total, spanning skull, spine and rib cage. Cranium protects the brain, mandible the lower jaw allows chewing movements. Ribs protect the heart and lungs. The vertebral column contains 26 individual bones held together by ligaments, separated by cartilage discs, it provides support for the axis of the body, and they also protect the nerve cord.

Appendicular skeleton which is made up of the limbs and limb girdles containing a total of 126 bones, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, arms and legs. The pelvic girdle make up the pelvic bone composed of three bones together with the sacrum at the back, this solid arrangement of bones provides stability to the body. The Pectoral girdle is made up of scapula and the clavicle which is a loose arrangement of bones once again providing flexibility.

Mike Boyle & Kath Senior. (2008). Exercise Physiology. In: Rosie Parrish Biology. 3rd ed. London: Collins. p374 - p375.

Author unknown. (2014). A-level Biology/Biology Foundation/biological molecules. Available: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level...ical_molecules. Last accessed 11/02/2015.

TAQ2: Complete a table similar to the one below (250 words) (271 words)

Joint Joint Type Movement Range
Hip Ball and socket
Allows multi-directional free movement. +/- 80 degrees from rest position in X-Z plane, with roughly 60 degrees in Y-Z plane
Flexion, leg lifting forwards
Extension, lifting leg backwards
Adduction, moving straight leg towards body
Abduction, moving straight leg away from body.
Medial Rotation, turning leg inward.
Lateral Rotation, turning leg outward
Elbow Hinge Joint
Allowing Movement in one plane, for instance up and down.
Freely movable joint 180 degree range X-Z plane. On the sagittal plane operating medial later axis of rotation.
Flexion, moving bent arm towards body.
Extension, enabling bent arm to straighten
Pronation, rotating flat arm, palm down
Supination, rotating a flat arm, palm up.
Shoulder Ball and Socket Flexion, lifting straight arm upward.
Extension, pushing straight arm backward.
Medial Rotation;
Inward, moving shoulders forward
Outward, moving shoulders backward
Circumduction, moving outstretched arms in a circular direction.
Adduction, moving arms sideways downwards
Abduction, moving arms sideways upwards
Vertebrea Cartilaginous Joint
Cartilage between bones holds bones together forming a joint. Limited movement, due to compressible pad of cartilage found in secondary cartilaginous joints (symphysis): Thickness of the fibro-cartilage in these joints controls degree of movement.
Wrist Gliding joint
Enables movement between bones.
Freely movable joint On the Sagittal plane of movement
with a Medial-lateral Axis of Rotation
80 degree range
Flexion, moving palm towards body from normal
Extension, moving palm away from body from normal
Adduction, moving hand downwards from normal
Abduction, moving hand upwards from normal
Circumduction, rotating.
Skull Fiburus Joint
Found only in the skull, joints are held together with very short interconnecting fibres and weaving bone edges. Immovable

Mike Boyle & Kath Senior. (2008). Exercise Physiology. In: Rosie Parrish Biology. 3rd ed. London: Collins. p375 - p376

Nisabel. (Year of publication unknown). OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FIELDWORK TOOLKIT. Available: http://speakingofot.blogspot.co.uk/2...-toolkits.html. Last accessed 10/2/2015

MACKENZIE, B. (2004) Range of Movement (ROM) Available: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/musrom.html. Last accessed 10/2/2015

TAQ3: Part 1 Explain what joint and muscle movements are involved in running and how are they involved? (200 words) (220 words)

Slow twitch fibres are used when running at slow speed as speed increases fast twitch fibres are used. Driving phase requires hip and knee joint to be extended, whilst the ankle plantar flexed, extension is where two adjoining bones move further apart, engaging; gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles. The quadriceps muscles bend the hip and straighten the knee; quads stabilize the knee and help absorb shock impact of landing. Hip and knee joints extend, gluteus maximus contracts in order for hamstrings and quadriceps to lengthen, as the leg touches the ground the body is propelled forwards due to muscles engaging in concentric isotonic contractions. Gluteal muscles also play a role in extending hip whilst stabilizing the buttocks to help maintain posture. Hip rotator muscles stabilise hip joint while running ensues to contribute to good running form.

As the body is propelled forwards recovery phase ensues. Concentric isotonic contractions of the hamstring raise the thigh and bend the knee which straightens the hip. Hamstrings also work to bend the knee in order for the running motion to continue. Lower leg muscles soleus and gastocnemius extend and flex each foot as landing and pushing off occurs, to help absorb impact. Gluteal muscles help to straighten the hip once pushing off, whilst engaging in order for the body to remain upright.

MACKENZIE, B. (2007) Movement Analysis Available: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/moveanal.htm Last accessed 10/2/2015

Warren Rosenberg. (2014). Types of Muscle Contraction During Running. Available: http://www.livestrong.com/article/48...uring-running/ Last accessed 11/02/2015

TAQ3: Explain what joint and muscle movement are involved in working at a computer in an office and how are they involved? (200 words) Currently I am on 282 words, I am massively over my total limit of 220 words (it’s 10% above or below on each question, I am not really sure what I need to write about!) beneath is a bit i’m not sure if i need to include or not!
The main joints and muscles which are used when using a computer are vertebrae in order to maintain posture whilst also enabling the neck to move, the knees being in a bent position. The main movement is in the shoulder girdle, elbows and wrists. Due to the sitting position most of the body’s joints and muscles are inactive, aside from the biceps and triceps
All muscles have antagonistic pairs, in the arm there is the tricep and the bicep. In order for the arms to move the bicep must remain contracted and the tricep relaxed, so that the arm is able to move freely, in the bent typing position, as when the bicep contracts the forearm is raised. The elbow is in flexion for the hands to be able to comfortably type. The majority of the work is performed by the hand; wrist, knuckles and fingers in an office setting due to working with a keyboard. The metacarpus bones extend from the second row of carpal bones, they are the fingers. One of these bones is combined with the proximal phalanx making up the carpometacarpal joint in the thumb, enabling more movement in the thumb. The fingers consist of three individual bones and joints all capable of flexion and extension, however most movements begin in the forearm, extensor tendons for extending the hand to the tips of the fingers and the flexor tendons which run through the palms to the fingers. Between the individual metacarpal bones lies short muscles of the hand allowing the spread of fingers, abduction, and the contraction of fingers, adduction, which is essential for typing. These muscles also help flex the metacarpophalangeal joints allowing extention of the fingers.
Clay Scott. (2001). Repetitive Strain Injury. Available: http://web.eecs.umich.edu/~cscott/rsi.html. Last accessed 12/02/2015.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. (2012). How does the hand work?. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83668/. Last accessed 16/02/2015.

Author unknown. (2007). Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscle. Available: http://downloads.lww.com/wolterskluw...04_045-068.pdf. Last accessed 16/02/2015.

Author unknown. (2014). Life processes. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/sc...es/revision/8/. Last accessed 16/02/2015.
Cindy Schmidler. (2012). Skeletal System: Bones, Joints, Cartilage, Ligaments, Bursae. Available: http://www.healthpages.org/anatomy-f...age-ligaments/. Last accessed 16/02/2015.
Not sure if i need to include any of this.
The thenar eminence and the hypothenar eminence muscles
Two groups of more powerful muscles in the hand itself make up the thenar eminence (at the base of the thumb) and the hypothenar eminence (controlling the little finger). The thenar eminence helps the thumb to move. This includes the essential movement of opposition, allowing the thumb and the tips of the remaining four fingers to touch. A separate muscle for flexing (adductor) can help move the thumb towards the palm. The muscles of the hypothenar eminence are mainly used for extending and bending the little finger, as well as for tightening the skin that covers the hypothenar eminence.
The lumbricals of the hand are four thin, worm-shaped muscles that help bend the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the fingers.

TAQ 4: Skeletal muscles have complicated structures that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to carry out their roles? (300 words)

Skeletal muscles are a large percentage of the bodies tissue and muscle, it covers the skeleton, this enables movement of the body. In order to maintain posture the skeletal muscles make tiny adjustments to keep the body upright. Another key tole of skeletal muscles is give the body it’s shape as the muscles hold the bones in the correct positions, preventing the joints from dislocating. The facial skeletal muscles are directly attached to the skin which with tiny contrasts forms facial expressions. Heat production is a by-product of muscle activity performed by skeletal muscles. Strong, springy tendons connected to rough patches of bone attach the skeletal muscle to the body.

Voluntary movement controls skeletal muscles within the body, in order for the body to move skeletal muscles must contract.

Describe the structure and functions of skeletal muscle

Author unknown. (2014). Fact files Muscles - Skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbo...ardiac/heart_b

TAQ5: ‘Movement requires muscles and all muscles have antagonist pairs’. Using this as the title, write a short account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is vital for the co-ordinated movement of an organism. (200 words)

Discuss muscle contraction in relation to movement
Explore the relationship of antagonist pairs

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