parkerposse
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Please could someone help me with this topic? I am getting so confused:confused:
Am I right with the following?
High blood sugar, eg diet causes the pancreas to release insulin. This stimulates the body to take extra glucose from the blood, which is fed into cells. This then lowers the blood sugar.
Low blood sugar causes the pancreas to release glucagon which feeds into the liver and is broken down into glucose. this raises the blood sugar.

I am struggling with the technical vocab, what causes low blood sugar and could really do with a simplified flow chart which might help.

Any help really would be appreciated.
Many, many thanks in advance.
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Kuki12
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Hiya,

Is this for GCSE or A-level?
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username1303391
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You have a good understanding of the concept but remember to say that glucose is stored in cells as glycogen and glucagon causes the glycogen to breakdown. Low blood sugar is caused by the body using the sugars in respiration and high blood sugar is caused by the assimilation of carbohydrates after a meal.

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Democracy
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(Original post by parkerposse)
Please could someone help me with this topic? I am getting so confused:confused:
Am I right with the following?
High blood sugar, eg diet causes the pancreas to release insulin. This stimulates the body to take extra glucose from the blood, which is fed into cells. This then lowers the blood sugar.
Yep, all good.

Low blood sugar causes the pancreas to release glucagon which feeds into the liver and is broken down into glucose. this raises the blood sugar.
Glucagon itself isn't broken down to produce glucose. Glucagon is a hormone like insulin, it's just the messenger which gets the job done.

Glucagon starts the process which breaks glycogen down to yield glucose. Glycogen is how excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscles.

But yes, once glucagon breaks glycogen down, there is a release of glucose into the bloodstream which raises blood sugar levels.

I am struggling with the technical vocab, what causes low blood sugar and could really do with a simplified flow chart which might help.
The most obvious one is going a long time without eating! If you go over 4 hours without eating, your body goes into what is known as the "fasting state". It has no immediately available glucose, so glucagon needs to start breaking down some of its glucose stores (i.e. the glycogen) in order to get blood sugar levels back up to normal levels.
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King Boo
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Okay

Glucose is the main fuel we use for energy. It gets converted to ATP in a process called glycolysis, and our cells need ATP for loads of cellular processes.

So, in a hypoglycaemic state (hypo = low, glycaemic = glucose / sugar) (Low blood sugar) state, the body has not got enough glucose. This may be because you have just gone for a run, and you've used up all your energy and your glucose reserves are running low. So the pancreas detects this, (specifically some cells in the pancreas called alpha cells), and these cells secrete glucagon.

Glucagon stimulates the body to make more glucose (this is called gluconeogenesis), and also to use other sources of fuel to make energy. (Namely fats / triglycerides). So as you aren't using glucose anymore, and you're making it from scratch from other molecules in the body, your blood glucose (sugar) level increases.


In the other scenario, where we have HIGH blood glucose, say right after a big meal, you're pancreas beta cells detect that, and secrete the hormone insulin. This acts to LOWER the blood glucose level. This means we want to store up the glucose in the liver (as glycogen, the stored form of glucose), and also use glucose and not other energy sources (fats). This is how we decrease the amount of glucose going round in our blood, by using it, and storing it away.


I dont know how in depth you need that, but thats a very simplified version of glucose control within the body. Remember, glucose needs to be controlled. Our body can't let us completely run out of glucose and other energy stores, as our brain needs glucose. If we go too low (and glucagon doesnt kick in to raise the blood glucose level) we can go into a coma, and if it gets too high, and insulin doesn't work, then you essentially have diabetes or diabetes like symptoms.
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parkerposse
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(Original post by Democracy)
Yep, all good.



Glucagon itself isn't broken down to produce glucose. Glucagon is a hormone like insulin, it's just the messenger which gets the job done.

Glucagon starts the process which breaks glycogen down to yield glucose. Glycogen is how excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscles.

But yes, once glucagon breaks glycogen down, there is a release of glucose into the bloodstream which raises blood sugar levels.





The most obvious one is going a long time without eating! If you go over 4 hours without eating, your body goes into what is known as the "fasting state". It has no immediately available glucose, so glucagon needs to start breaking down some of its glucose stores (i.e. the glycogen) in order to get blood sugar levels back up to normal levels.
Thank you so much. This is really helpful. Perhaps you should wrire a revision text book?? Your reply is a lot clearer than the books Ive been looking at!
Thank you again it really is appreciated x
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parkerposse
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(Original post by Kuki12)
Hiya,

Is this for GCSE or A-level?
GCSE but it seems like degree work to me!!
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parkerposse
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(Original post by ET247)
You have a good understanding of the concept but remember to say that glucose is stored in cells as glycogen and glucagon causes the glycogen to breakdown. Low blood sugar is caused by the body using the sugars in respiration and high blood sugar is caused by the assimilation of carbohydrates after a meal.

Posted from TSR Mobile

Thank you so much for taking the time to help me. I really do appreciate it. Its all starting to become clearer now.
Thanks again x
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parkerposse
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(Original post by King Boo)
Okay

Glucose is the main fuel we use for energy. It gets converted to ATP in a process called glycolysis, and our cells need ATP for loads of cellular processes.

So, in a hypoglycaemic state (hypo = low, glycaemic = glucose / sugar) (Low blood sugar) state, the body has not got enough glucose. This may be because you have just gone for a run, and you've used up all your energy and your glucose reserves are running low. So the pancreas detects this, (specifically some cells in the pancreas called alpha cells), and these cells secrete glucagon.

Glucagon stimulates the body to make more glucose (this is called gluconeogenesis), and also to use other sources of fuel to make energy. (Namely fats / triglycerides). So as you aren't using glucose anymore, and you're making it from scratch from other molecules in the body, your blood glucose (sugar) level increases.


In the other scenario, where we have HIGH blood glucose, say right after a big meal, you're pancreas beta cells detect that, and secrete the hormone insulin. This acts to LOWER the blood glucose level. This means we want to store up the glucose in the liver (as glycogen, the stored form of glucose), and also use glucose and not other energy sources (fats). This is how we decrease the amount of glucose going round in our blood, by using it, and storing it away.


I dont know how in depth you need that, but thats a very simplified version of glucose control within the body. Remember, glucose needs to be controlled. Our body can't let us completely run out of glucose and other energy stores, as our brain needs glucose. If we go too low (and glucagon doesnt kick in to raise the blood glucose level) we can go into a coma, and if it gets too high, and insulin doesn't work, then you essentially have diabetes or diabetes like symptoms.


This is so helpful. Thank you for taking the time to reply. I think I'm really starting to understand this now.
Thank you again for your help x
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King Boo
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(Original post by parkerposse)
This is so helpful. Thank you for taking the time to reply. I think I'm really starting to understand this now.
Thank you again for your help x
No worries, if you need any more help message me, I study biomed and have had entire modules on this.
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