Levinger and ClarkWatch
They investigated the effects of emotionally-charged words on recall under laboratory conditions, comparing neutral words with negatively-charged ones. Participants were asked to give associations for a list of 60 words, some having neutral meanings such as "tree" and some having high negative emotional content such as "fear". The time taken to produce a response was measured and also the participant's galvanic skin response (GSR) for each word was recorded, the more sweaty they became indicated increased arousal of the autonomic nervous system. Immediately after the first task of producing associations the participants were given the cue words again to try and recall their associations. It was found that responses were slower for the negatively-charged words and these words also produced a higher GSR. Also, participants had more difficulty recalling the negative emotionally-charged associations. They concluded that the greater difficulty in the recall of negative emotionally-charged words compared to neutral words was explained to repression and this supported Freud's concept of repressed memoriesng that experiment too and I've found loads of research. IV = emotional charge of the word, DV = Speed of recall.
Other supporting research comes from:
Myers and Brewin (1994)
Herman and Schatzan (1987)
Kaminer and Lavie (1991)
Taylor and Kopelman (1984)
Opposition to repression comes from:
Parkin et al (1982)
Eysenck and Wilson (1973)
Useful Websites (Using Google Search-engine):
I hope this information is useful,
Hi. I just stumbled across this and I was wandering if anyone here could help with my coursework. I'm choosing to repaet Levinger and Clark's investigation on repression in 1961 but I can't find anything about how they did it apart from VERY brief summaries. Does ne1 here know anything about it. Like the method they used?