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Attitudes in the Southern States 1950's
- Jim Crow Laws - Segregation in churches, hospitals, theaters and schools between white people and black people, in the Southern States
- Poll Tax - A tax had to be paid in order to be able to vote, and most black people were too poor to pay the tax.
- Literacy Tests - In order to be able to vote, people had to prove that they could read difficult extracts. If black people passed these tests, they would then be threatened and attacked so that they would not vote.
- The KKK - founded in 1866 by confederate soldiers. Most of its members were White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) and wanted to show that they were better and more powerful than black people, immigrants, Jews, Roman Catholics, communists and socialists.
- Even though the KKK was banned in 1872, it carried on illegally and was popular, including judges andpoliticians within it's members.
- Schools for Black Americans were set up, but many were forced to close.
- Black Americans were likely to be threatened if they gave evidence against a white person.
- Under the Jim Crow Segregation Laws: in Arizona - the marriage between a white and a black shall be null and void, and in Florida - the schools for white and black children shall be conducted separately.
- Many Black Americans were forced to leave Southern America due to poor living conditions.
Rosa Parks / Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956
- On December 1st 1955 in Montgomery Alabama, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined after she refused to give up her seat for a white man.
- The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People) led by 26-yr old Martin Luther King, organised a Bus Boycott in protest.
- African Americans supported the Boycott by walking to work or car pooling for a year, until the Supreme Court finally ruled that Alabama's Bus Segregation Laws were Unconstitutional.
- The sucess of this peaceful protest was inspirational to those who opposed segregation in the south, as it proved Black Americans could organise themselves effectively.
- The Boycott involved 170,00 Black Americans, and 200 vehicles used for car-pooling.
- However, the family of Rosa Parks was targeted by racists, so she was forced to move from Montgomery to Detroit in 1957.
Brown v.s Topeka Board of Education 1954
- Linda Brown was a seven year old black girl. She had to walk 20 blocks to school even though there was a school for white people two blocks from her home.
- The NAACP helped her father to bring a legal case against the education board.
- On 19 May 1954 the court declared that segregation was against the law and the constitution of the USA.
- The Board of Education of Topeka and every other education board were forced to bring segregation to anend.
- But many schools continued to refuse to implement this, and by 1956, in six southern states, not a single black child was attending any school where there were white children.
- In 1955, membership of the KKK grew dramatically as a response to this.
- No date was set by which schools must have ended segregation, so nothing changed.
- The district court ruled that the old law 'separate but equal' still applied.
Little Rock High School 1957
- In September 1957, nine black pupils tried to attend a school for white children
- The Governor of Arkansas (Orval Faubus) sent National Guard soldiers to prevent the black children from entering the school.
- The black people made a case against the Governor, won, and the soldiers forced to leave.
- The black pupils now had the right to go to the school and President Eisenhower sent 1,000 paratroopers / soldiers to look after them for the rest of the year.
- By 1960, out of a total of 2 million black school children in the state of Arkansas, only 2,600 were going to the same school as white children.
- The Little Rock High School case was publicised to the rest of the world, who were shocked.
- However, 4 parents of the black children lost their jobs, and only 1 of the students graduated.
Freedom Rides 1961
- Segregation continued on buses that took people from one state to another. In the north, black people had the right to sit in the same place as white people to wait for buses, but in the south they had to sit in separate waiting areas.
- In 1961 the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) organised freedom trips. Black people traveled on buses across the country from one state to the next without getting off the bus. This led to a great deal of conflict between the black and white people and the Government sent 500 soldiers to protect the black people.
- Robert Kennedy (brother of JFK), who was the National Attorney, stopped segregation within the public facilities associated with transport – buses, railways and airports. By 1963, this had extended to include most public facilities.
Freedom Marches 1963
- The council of Birmingham, Alabama, refused to let black people use entertainment facilities and leisure centers in the town.
- In 1963 Martin Luther King organised a march in which 30,000 black people took part.
- Each day, 500 people were arrested. The police, under the orders of Eugene 'Bull' Connor, treated the protesters cruelly, using water cannons and attacking people with dogs and batons.
- All this was shown on television and some of America's white population began supporting the black people’s cause.
- President Kennedy sent soldiers to make Birmingham council put an end to segregation.
- JFK said that the civil rights movement should 'Thank god for 'Bull Connor'' as he was the one who had made many white people and the government realise the injustices faced by black people.
Washington March 1963
- In August 1963, 250,000 people (including 50,000 white people) took part in a march to Washington DC.
- Martin Luther King delivered his famous 'I have a dream' speech, calling for equal rights for all of America.
- This put pressure on Congress to pass Kennedy's Civil Rights Bill.
- The event received worldwide media coverage, but the federal government took no political action to deal with the issues raised.
- Over 2000 buses, 21 trains, 10 airliners and many cars all converged to Washington
- The march began at the Washington Monument, and finished and the Lincon Memorial.
- Less than a month after he delivered this speech, a bombing killed 4 young girls in a BirminghamChurch.
Black Power Movement 1960's
- Malcolm X was a Muslim, and wanted Black Americans to be more militant demanding change.
- He campaigned for the Nation of Islam, a separate USA for Blacks.
- He wanted to confront racism and, if necessary, meet violence with violence
- 1965, 50% of blacks in the northern states lived in poverty, many in city ghettos.
- 1967, 33% of black families lived below the poverty line.
- “Black Power” slogan emerged in 1966 – idea that Blacks should control their own communities.
- At the Mexico Olympics in 1986, the top three athletes used the medal ceremony for the 200m sprint to protest about the lack of real civil rights in America. Smith won gold, and Carlos won bronze. Both woreone black glove each, and the archway that their raised arms created was meant to represent unity in America. They also wore black socks and no shoes to represent the poverty that many Black Americans suffered from.
- Their gesture was viewed as a Black Power salute, and was watched my tens of millions of people across the world. Both men were expelled from the Olympic village, suspended from the American Olympic Committee, and ordered to leave Mexico City, for bringing politics to a non-political event.
Martin Luther King as a Protest Organiser 1955-1956
- In 1955, King was asked to be leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, sparked off by Rosa Parks, and he was head of the Montgomery Improvement Association.
- He valued the importance of non-violent protesting.
- His house was bombed, and he was the first boycott leader to be put on trial, but he chose to go to jailrather than pay a $10 fine.
- In 1957 he set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), but this lacked organisation and mass support, so achieved very little after the Bus Boycott.
- In 1961 King was invited to lead a march after students from Georgia, Albany staged sit-ins at the bus station, hundreds of freedom riders were arrested, but failed to achieve change.
- In 1963 King was arrested at Birmingham, Alabama, after he expected there to be white violence which he hoped would raise national sympathy.
- In solitary confinement he wrote his 'letter from Birmingham jail' on toilet paper, which was smuggled out by his wife.
- The Children's Crusade saw children met with police violence, which gained publicity.
- In support of the Civil Rights Bill, Martin Luther King organised the March on Washington in August 1963.
Civil Rights Act 1964 / Nobel Peace Prize
- The Civil Rights Act 1964 was the act that made the biggest difference to the lives of black people in America. Martin Luther King's campaigning had helped to achieve this.
- The Act prohibited racial discrimination and prejudice in employment.
- It also gave black pupils the right to use any public facilities funded by the government, eg schools, hospitals, churches and theaters.
- It established the Equal Opportunities Commission to look into any complaints involvingdiscrimination and prejudice.
- In 1964 Martin Luther King was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize.
- The Voting Rights Act followed in 1965, removing many of the barriers which had ensured African Americans could be disenfranchised in some states.
Race Riots / MLK's Assassination
- 1964: The Harlem Riot and the New York Race Riot take place.
- In 1965, King tried to organise a march from Selma to Montgomery, but this was aborted because of violent white protests and police violence against demonstrations.
- On March 21st 1965, 10,000 people joined King marching from Selma to Montgomery, Only 300 people were allowed to take part, but they were joined by 25,000 more people in Montgomery to present apetition for voting rights.
- August 1965: A total of 34 people are killed in the Watts area of Los Angeles, and another 1,072 are injured during a riot lasting six days.
- Martin Luther King was assassinated on 4th April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was attending a march in support of striking sanitation workers.
- He was shot dead on his hotel balcony, and President Lyndon B Johnson called for a national day ofmourning.
Race Relations Timeline 1942-1968
- 1942 - Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was established
- 1946 - Supreme Court declared segregation on buses that crossed state borders was illegal
- 1948 - Discrimination in the armed forces was banned
- 1952 - First year since 1881 without a lynching
- 1954 - Supreme Court declared segregation in schools to be unconstitutional
- 1955 - Montgomery Bus Boycott began after the arrest of Rosa Parks
- 1957 - Little Rock clash, Martin Luther King president of the SCLC, Civil Rights Act passed.
- 1960 - First studen sit-ins against segregation at lunch counters occurs
- 1961 - The arrest of Freedom Riders in the South
- 1963 - Washington March, and four black children killed in Birmingham Church Bombing
- 1964 - Civil Rights Act passed by Congress, Martin Luther King awarded Nobel Peace Prize
- 1965 - Selma Montgomery marches, Voting Rights Act, Malcom X assassinated, Watts riot
- 1956 - Stokely Carmichael introduced the idea of Black Power
- 1968 - Mexico Olympics Black Power Salute, Martin Luther King Assassinated
OKAY here are some more notes - I made two sets because I thought I lost the following ones, but I found them YAY i'm so stupid I can't even save files properly without thinking they're pictures of cats or something
Unit 2-Section B
Race Relations in the USA, 1955–1968
Key issue: To what extent did racial inequality exist in the USA in the 1950s?
The Second World War can be seen as a starting point for Black activism and a more militant stance in the fight for civil rights .In the 1940s and 1950s black Americans were still denied their rights as promised by the American constitution. Many southern states were still segregated and racism was common
Black people in America were subjected to racial discrimination, to racial prejudice and to persecution. The ‘Jim Crow' laws in the southern states made black people outsiders and second class citizens.
• Public facilities, such as parks, buses, school and universities were segregated.
• Black people could not vote Voter registration was made impossible for black people e.g. In Mississippi only 5% of black people were registered to vote.
• Black people were not protected by the law, Judges, all white juries and the police force discriminated against black people.
• Black people suffered economically, earning half the wages of white people doing the same job.
• Black people suffered violence, including lynching, at the hands of racist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.
• In the North and West of the USA black people could vote and have their children educated, 7 million blacks migrated from the southern states.
Attitudes in the Southern States;
However there were powerful forces prepared to resist changes to the status quo. Many white people saw black civil rights as a threat to their way of life and were prepared to resist changes in any way possible.
The Ku Klux Klan;
• Bombing campaigns were used to drive blacks out of neighbourhoods; Birmingham, Alabama was nicknamed 'bombingham.' Klan members cooperated with Mayors and Governors to resist social change.
• Physical violence, intimidation and murder were used against Civil Rights activists.
• The 1963 the bombing of a Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which killed four girls, was by members of the KKK.
• In 1963 Medgar Evers, the NAACP organiser in Mississippi was murdered by the Klan.
• The 1964 murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi was the work of the Klan.
Black Americans began to gain civil rights by using the Supreme Court. They sought to ensure that the Constitution that promised all citizens certain rights was implemented
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956;
• To some people Rosa Parks is ‘the mother of the Civil Rights Movement'.
• She refused to give up her seat on a public bus to a white passenger.
• She was a member of the NAACP, after her arrest a bus boycott was organised.
• The boycott lasted for 381 days, 90% of black people took part and greatly cut the bus company revenues.
• A Supreme Court ordered the buses in Montgomery to be desegregated and the boycott ended.
• The boycott had been organised by Martin Luther King Jr; his speeches made him a national figure
• The boycott showed that non-violent direct action could work, that by refusing to cooperate with the system it could be changed.
Brown v.s. Topeka Board of Education;
• Schools in the southern states were segregated by law. They were deemed to be “separate but equal', there was no discrimination if black and whites had the same facilities and equipment.
• In 1954 the Supreme Court decided that segregated education could not be considered to be equal. The NAACP had argued that black children had been put at a disadvantage by the school system and that they were not being prepared to live in a mixed race society and would be disadvantaged in later life.
• The Supreme Court ordered that segregation in schools was to be phased out over time, “with all deliberate speed.”
Little Rock High School, 1957;
• However the decision of the Supreme Court was met by bitter hostility in some states.
• In 1957 nine black students sued for the right to attend Little Rock High School in Arkansas.
• The Governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, made a stand against integration and the decision of the Supreme Court. He called out the National Guard to prevent the nine students entering the school.
• President Eisenhower intervened. He ordered the National Guard back to barracks and sent in the 101st Airborne Division to protect the students.
• Only one student graduated. At the end of the year the school system closed rather than continue to integrate. Central High was not integrated until 1960,
• Little Rock's schools were not fully integrated until 1972.
Living standards for African Americans;
• Discrimination meant it was difficult for blacks to find employment. Great thousands of blacks move north in search of work after the turn of the century
•In crude terms 50% of Black Americans lived in poverty, unemployment amongst blacks was twice that of white Americans.
• Black aspirations grew and they demanded to be allowed to join the consumer boom, to move out of the ghettos and into the suburbs and to leave jobs in agriculture for higher paid jobs in factories.
• There were changes in sport; opportunities for black people were severely limited. In 1947 Jackie Robinson became the first black player in major league baseball. Black players were barred from American football until 1946 and from basketball until 1950.
Key issue: How effective were the methods used by members of the Civil Rights Movement between 1961–1968?
• The Civil Rights Movement is an ‘umbrella term' for the organisations who sought to end racial discrimination and gain the vote for black people in the southern states. Groups involved included the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE), the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC), and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
• There was a change in tactics from using a gradualist legalistic approach that was bringing about changes in the law, to using mass action, direct action, nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience.
• The Civil Rights Movement was boosted by student sit-ins at a Woolworth's store in North Carolina.
• Four black students sat down at a segregated lunch counter against the refusal to admit black people.
• The sit-ins were copied in other stores in other towns and gained national attention. The movement also targeted parks, beaches, libraries, theatres, cinemas, museums and other public places.
The Freedom Rides, 1961;
• In 1960 the Supreme Court had ended segregated for passengers travelling on inter-state buses.
• Civil Rights activists travelled on inter-state buses seeking to end segregation, not only on the buses but also the bus stations, waiting rooms and at drink fountains.
• They were met with violent mobs, in Anniston, Alabama, a bus was firebombed. Passengers were beaten by gangs of opponents. Freedom riders were arrested for ‘breaching the peace' by using “white only” facilities. More than 300 were jailed in Mississippi. President Kennedy had to intervene and a new desegregation order was issued.
Freedom Marches 1963;
In 1963 the SCLC had a more focused campaign in Birmingham, Alabama.
The campaign aimed to end segregation in the town centre.
The campaign was met by brutality from Eugene ‘Bull' Connor.
• The authorities claimed all protests were illegal and so the campaigners planned a mass arrest. King was arrested.
• As the campaign faltered one thousand students joined in, the Children's Crusade. More than 600 were arrested.
• The next day fire hoses and dogs were set on the children. Pictures shown on television outraged the public and President Kennedy had to intervene, he proposed to introduce a Civil Rights Bill. Governor Wallace officially ended segregation but the campaigners were subjected to violence.
• Four young girls were killed when opponents of the changes firebombed a church in Birmingham.
The Washington March, 1963;
• In August 1963 a ‘March on Washington' was planned by all the major civil rights organisations.
• It called for civil rights legislation, job creation, an end to discrimination at work, decent housing, the right to vote and integrated education.
• Between 200,000 and 300,000 people took part, it was shown on national television. King made his ‘I have a dream speech' which had a huge impact on public opinion. After the march the leaders met President Kennedy who was committed to passing a Civil Rights Bill but lacked enough support in Congress.
• After his assassination in November 1963 it was the new President, Lyndon Johnson, who used his influence to secure its passage.
The Civil Rights Act, 1964;
• In 1964 the Civil Rights campaign gathered momentum. Thousands of activists set up ‘Freedom Schools' in Mississippi to help black voters to register. They were met with arrests, beatings, arson and violence as the white residents of the state objected to outsiders trying to change their lifestyles.
• In June 1964 three civil rights workers disappeared, their bodies were discovered weeks later, victims of the Ku Klux Klan.
• The public outrage helped the passage of the Civil Rights Bill and turned the media spotlight onto the persecution of blacks in the southern states.
• On 2 July 1964 the Civil Rights Act was passed. It banned discrimination based on “race, colour, religion or national origin” in jobs and housing.
Selma to Montgomery Marches, 1965;
• Voter registration had had little success in Selma, Alabama. (Less than 3% of those blacks entitled to register had been able to do so.)
• Martin Luther King Jr, proposed to lead marches in the town. The marches were met with violence. A proposed march from Selma to Montgomery was met by state troopers, mounted police and police and driven back into the town. It became known as ‘Bloody Sunday' and the violence was shown on TV.
• It helped President Johnson pass the Voting Rights Act, 1965 which ended voting discrimination and allowed government agents to inspect voting procedures. Within four years black voting doubled.
The Black Power movement in the 1960s;
• The Black Power movement was a Black Nationalist movement, it did not want integration, it wanted separation.
• The Civil Rights Movement is seen as being personified by Martin Luther King, Jr. He is seen as its figurehead and representative of the movement.
• However this approach was rejected by some groups, they called for separatism not integration, they were anti-American in their appeal, the Nation of Islam called for separation not equality. Its Black Power movement had wider aims; it called for racial dignity, for economic and political self sufficiency and freedom from white oppression. The Black Power movement challenged two of MLK's main ideals, integration and non-violence. King described the Nation of Islam as a 'hate group'.
• The Black Power movement was urban based. After the Second World War more than half of America's black population lived in the north and west's industrial cities. As the industries in these cities went into decline the job market collapsed. Poor blacks became concentrated in neighbourhoods with poor quality housing, poor quality education and high crime rates.
• The cities experienced race riots between 1965 and 1967. There were riots in Harlem, in Philadelphia, in Watts, Los Angeles; in Detroit, in Chicago, in Seattle, in Atlanta, in Cleveland.
• It was against this background that the ‘Black Power' movement emerged. One of its early spokesmen was Stokely Carmichael the SNCC leader in 1966. He spoke of black communities arming themselves and confronting the Ku Klux Klan.
• People in the movement referred to themselves as ‘Afro-Americans' rather than ‘negroes'. They spoke of black pride and identity.
He aimed to improve the lives of Black Americans. Malcolm X joined the NOI. He wanted black Americans to rise up and create their own separate black state in America, by force if necessary. He was accused of encouraging racial hatred and violence. Malcolm X raised awareness of the hardships in the ghettoes. Those born in poverty could not break out from the ghetto. Only 32% of ghetto pupils finished High School.
Low skilled jobs were in decline, 46% of those unemployed were black. The ghettoes were places of unemployment, poor housing, poverty, poor education and violence. They exploded into violence each summer between 1964-68. The civil rights campaigners such as King seemed to offer the people of the ghetto nothing. So they looked to new leaders such as Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael.
The Black Panther Party;
Formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California. They followed the ideas of Malcolm X; they aimed to achieve equality “by any means necessary”. They sought to confront police brutality. They wore black leather jackets, berets, and light blue shirts. They wore ‘afros’. They never amounted to more than 5000 members. They gained admiration for their work in the ghettos; they aimed to expose police brutality. However they had no coherent plan or strategy and were targeted by the police, by 1970 they had disappeared.
Black Power protests at the Mexico Olympics, 1968;
Black Power achieved a stage, live on international television at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Tommy Smith and John Carlos, who won Gold and Bronze medals, gave the black-gloved Black Power salute during the medal ceremony. They were thrown out of the Games and were given a life time ban by the IOC.
Key issue: How important was Martin Luther King in the fight for Civil Rights in the USA?
To many people King is the crucial figure in the civil rights campaign; to others his importance has been overblown. They argue you need to consider the roles of other individuals and organisations in the campaign. There is also controversy surrounding his personal reputation and his organisational ability.
His role as a protest organiser, 1955–1963;
• King began work as a Pastor in a church in Montgomery, Alabama in 1954.
• In 1955 he was asked to be leader of the bus boycott sparked off by the Rosa Parks incident. He was the head of the Montgomery Improvement Association. He stressed the protest was 'non-violent protest'.
• His house was bombed and he was the first boycott leader to be put on trial. He chose jail over a $10 fine.
• King preferred mass action, direct protests. The NAACP preferred to use the courts. His rhetoric pushed him to the forefront of the movement and in 1957 he set up a new organisation, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
• In 1960 he moved to Atlanta, Georgia. The SCLC concentrated on the situation in the South, as it was a Church led organisation, preaching non-violence, it did not draw the hostility that other groups did.
• King's aim was to attract national attention to racial inequality. Marches did gain publicity but the SCLC lacked organisation and mass support and did little to encourage Southern blacks to vote. King believed that black people lacked the political power to bring about change. He organised campaigns and demonstrations to gain publicity for the lack of black voter registration. His frequent arrests gained publicity at home and abroad. The Civil Rights Movement was boosted by the Sit-ins by students in North Carolina. King had nothing to do with this at the start. Up to 70,000 students joined in the protests and King was swept along by the direct action. The focus moved from tackling discrimination through the courts to mass direct action and it was the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC) who were taking the lead. Another group CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) joined the civil rights movement with the Freedom Rides (1961). These gained publicity and forced the Federal Government to intervene. They enforced the Supreme Court ruling that desegregated interstate travel. In 1961 students from Albany, Georgia, staged sit-ins at the bus station. Hundreds of freedom riders were arrested. King was invited to become involved, he led a march, but it failed to achieve any change. King recognised it as a defeat.
In 1963 King turned his attention to segregation and inequality in Birmingham, Alabama. King was determined to make an impact, he expected there to be white violence which he hoped would gain national sympathy. King was arrested and put in solitary confinement, his 'Letter from Birmingham Jail', written on toilet paper and smuggled out by his wife saw King released by the intervention of President
Kennedy. The Children's Crusade saw the SCLC recruit schoolchildren to protest and was met with police violence. King gained the publicity he wanted, it persuaded President Kennedy to push through a Civil Rights Bill. It was in support of that Civil Rights Bill that King organised the March on Washington in August, 1963. The march saw the civil rights groups work together. It impressed television audiences globally.
Winning the Nobel Peace Prize, 1964;
In December 1964 King won the Nobel Peace Prize, at 35 years of age, he was the youngest man to ever receive the award. There had been little change in Birmingham; four black school girls were killed by a bomb at a Sunday school in September 1963. The leaders of Birmingham no longer wanted outside help in their struggle. He began to recognise problems in the ghettos in the northern cities. In 1965 Selma, Alabama was chosen as the new focus of the struggle. Half the population was black, segregation was strictly enforced, economic differences between black and white were marked. The SCLC would campaign to increase black voter registration. A march was organised from Selma to Montgomery. State troopers attacked the march with clubs and tear gas, it was called 'Bloody Sunday'. However it led to increasing bitterness amongst the civil rights movement when the SCLC withdrew and the people of Selma were left to pick up the pieces.
Race Riots, 1965–1967;
• The riots in the ghettos of the cities in the North and West saw King change direction. King began to define freedom in terms of economic equality not political equality; the vote was no longer enough. He called for a 'better distribution of the wealth of the USA.' He focussed on social and political equality, he chose Chicago as the battle ground.
• However he had no real programme and attempted to concentrate on housing issues. He failed to gain much support; the black population splintered and supported various other groups. King received little support from the Federal Government,
• The President turned against King after he criticised the Vietnam War.
• The Meredith March, 1966, planned by James Meredith, the first black student at the University of Mississippi, was to be a non violent protest. It was a march from Memphis to Jackson (220 miles) calling for blacks to vote. Meredith was shot on the second day. Black groups vowed to continue the protest, King arrived to join the march. The march split between king and his followers who urged peaceful protest and younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael who demanded 'Black Power' and rejected passive resistance. King felt he had lost his way; the civil rights coalition was collapsing. King wrote a book, 'Where Do We Go From Here? (1967). He called for an improvement in economic conditions, aware that the gaining of votes had cost little, but what he was now proposing was a redistribution of wealth, he planned to broaden his appeal and make it a war on poverty.
• However his Poor People's Campaign failed to take off.
The assassination of Martin Luther King;
King had made a speech in Memphis, Tennessee, in support of striking workers. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Riots broke out in 110 cities across the USA.
Okay this is gonna be a thread for all my revision notes, and I thought I may as well post them here to help other people out as well
(yeah such a nice person ikr )
One request - if you use them can you give a rep? (ja - i'm hungry for those gems *-* So sad right?)
HOPE THESE HELP! They'll be coming sporadically
If you wanna be really nice if you see something that helps you, feel free to message me/post some of yours too
THE RESTLESS EARTH
Crust – The outer layer of the earth
Plate – A section of the earth’s crust
Plate Boundary – The boundary where two plates meet
Mantle – The dense, mostly solid layer between the outer core and the crust
Convection Currents – The circular currents of heat in the mantle
Subduction – The sinking of oceanic crust at a destructive margin
Collision – The meeting of two plates of continental crust that come together and buckle
Destructive Plate Margin – Where two plates are moving towards each other
Constructive Plate Margin – Where two plates are moving apart and magma rises
Conservative Plate Margin – Where two plates slide past each other along a fault and jerk
Fold Mountains – Large mountain ranges formed by crumpled rock layers forced together
Ocean Trenches – Deep Ocean sections where an oceanic plate sinks below a continental
Composite Volcano – A steep-sided volcano made of lava and ash
Shield Volcano – A broad-sided volcano mainly made of lava
Supervolcano – A massive volcano that erupts at least 1,000km³ of material
The Structure of the Earth
The earth is made of four main layers (inner core, outer core, mantle and crust).The crust is split into plates of varying sizes and at plate margins it may move, determined by the convection currents in the layer of mantle below. In some cases plates are moving apart (destructive plate margin) and sometimes they are moving together (constructive plate margin).
The main areas of land are made up of continental crust, which is 35-70km thick, very old, cannot be renewed or destroyed and is relatively light. The ocean floor is made of oceanic crust, which is 6-10km thick, very young, can be renewed or destroyed, and is relatively heavy and so can sink.
Types of Plate Margin
There are two types of Destructive plate margins – Subduction (where the dense oceanic crust sinks below the lighter continental crust and is melted to form magma under high pressure) and Collision (where two continental plates collide rather than one sinking beneath the other). In Subduction, the oceanic crust melts in the Subduction Zone. Energy is released by the movement, and may be felt on the surface as an earthquake, which the molten magma may rise up and cause a volcanic eruption. A deep ocean trench is also formed. The continental crust is crumpled upwards into Fold Mountains.
At a Constructive plate margin the plates are moving apart and this happens mostly under the ocean. The gap left is filled by magma rising up from the mantle below to form volcanoes. Some of these volcanoes have grown large enough to become volcanic islands such as Hawaii and Iceland.
At a Conservative plate margin the plates slide past each other. The line of weakness where the two plates meet is called a fault. Pressure builds up until the plates jerk past each other and cause an earthquake. The land around it becomes crumpled and ridged, for example the San Andreas Fault in California.
Fold Mountains occur near destructive plate boundaries. Examples of Fold Mountains include the Alps, Rockies, Andes and Himalayas.
1. Where an area of sea separates two plates, sediments settle on the sea floor in depressions called geosynclines. These sediments gradually become compressed into sedimentary rock.
2. When the two plates move towards each other again, the layers of sedimentary rock on the sea floor become crumpled and folded.
3. Eventually the sedimentary rock appears above sea level as a range of Fold Mountains.
Where the rocks are folded upwards, they are called anticlines. Where the rocks are folded downwards, they are called synclines. Severely folded and faulted rocks are called nappes.
The Alps were formed 30-40 million years ago. The African and Eurasian plates moved together to fold layers of sedimentary rock into parallel ranges. Some of the fold were severe, and caused overfolds and nappes as well as synclines and anticlines. The highest peak is Mount Blanc (4810m). Problems for people living in the Alps are that communication if often poor, there are few jobs, the climate is cold and wet, there can be dangerous avalanches and landslides, and farming is hard because of the steep slopes and short growing seasons.
Human Activities: Winter sports such as skiing in resorts, climbing and hiking in the summer months, summer lakeside holidays, agriculture takes place mainly on south facing slopes and includes cereals, sugar beet, vines and fruits, forestry in coniferous forests for fuel and building, hydroelectric power (HEP) - steep slopes and glacial melt water are ideal for generating HEP.
Composite and Shield Volcanoes
Composite volcanoes are formed at Destructive plate margins, and have steep sides and narrow bases. They have infrequent but violent eruptions, and secondary cones with layers of thick lava and ash. Shield volcanoes are formed at Constructive plate margins, and have gentle slopes and wide bases with a low, rounded peak. There are layers of runny lava and little ash.
When magma reaches the Earth's surface it is called lava. When the lava cools, it forms rock.
A Supervolcano is a volcano on a massive scale. It is different from a volcano because:
· It erupts at least 1,000 km3 of material (a large volcano erupts around 1 km3)
· It forms a depression, called a caldera (a volcano forms a cone shape)
· A Supervolcano often has a ridge of higher land around it
· A Supervolcano erupts less frequently - eruptions are hundreds of thousands of years apart
Yellowstone is one example of a Supervolcano. Three huge eruptions have happened in the last 3 million years. The last eruption was 630,000 years ago, and was 1,000 times bigger than the Mount St Helens eruption in 1980. The large volume of material from the last Yellowstone eruption caused the ground to collapse, creating a depression called a caldera. The caldera is 55 km by 80 km wide. The next eruption is predicted to have catastrophic worldwide effects. The Supervolcano at Yellowstone is formed because of a volcanic hotspot. Every year millions of visitors come to see the related features, such as geysers and hot springs. Old Faithful is one example of a geyser.
Living Near Volcanoes
Some advantages of living near volcanoes are that the volcanic soils are very fertile, there are valuable minerals like sulphur and borax, the hot water can be used for geothermal power, and there are many tourist attractions such as hot springs, craters and walking which create jobs. Some disadvantages are unpredictable dangerous eruptions, loss of life, roads blocked and lack of electricity, crops lost, disease, and fires.
Primary effects of volcanic eruptions:
· People injured or killed
· Disruption to public services, communication, transport and electricity
· Destruction of buildings, property and farmland
Secondary effects of volcanic eruptions:
· Shortages of food, shelter and drinking water
· Spread of disease from contaminated water
· Stress and family losses
· Economic problems from cost of rebuilding and losses to factories and tourism
Mount St Helens
The eruptions were caused by the Juan de Fuca plate, which is the oceanic plate, moving towards the American plate, which is the continental plate. The American Plate was forced downwards, and then earthquakes were produced, caused by the friction between the two plates rubbing against each other and caused an earthquake of magnitude 5 on the Richter scale. Because of this, the magma rose to the surface, and volcanic eruptions occurred on the 18th May 1980. All like within 25km was destroyed, and the ash spread so far the people had to wear masks 120km away.
· The hot ash and gas destroyed many things
· 63 people were killed
· Mudflows covered a large area
· Trees were flattened
· Sediments blocked rivers, which then killed animals and plants
· Flooding destroyed bridges, roads, and telephone poles.
· Many crops were ruined
· People were given homes and shelters
· Roads and bridges were repaired
Long term responses:
· The volcano was monitored very carefully
· The forest was replanted
An earthquake is the shaking and vibration of the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates (plate tectonics). Earthquakes can happen along any type of plate boundary. Earthquakes occur when tension is released from inside the crust. Plates do not always move smoothly alongside each other and sometimes get stuck. When this happens pressure builds up. When this pressure is eventually released, an earthquake tends to occur. The point inside the crust where the pressure is released is called the focus. The point on the Earth's surface above the focus is called the epicentre. Earthquake energy is released in seismic waves. These waves spread out from the focus. The waves are felt most strongly at the epicentre, becoming less strong as they travel further away. The most severe damage caused by an earthquake will happen close to the epicentre. The strength of earthquakes are measured on the Richter scale (0-10), and the effects of earthquakes are measured on the Mercalli scale (0-12)
There are three types of earthquake waves:
Primary waves that arrive first and can travel through all of the earth’s layers in any direction. They vibrate to and fro in the direction of travel.
Secondary waves that are transverse waves and so vibrate at right angles to the direction of travel, and bounce off the core into the mantle.
Longitudinal waves that only travel through the crust and circle the world losing energy and doing the most damage of the three types.
Three parts of earthquakes are the foreshocks (warning tremors), the main shock (does the most damage but is short in duration) and the aftershocks (can be powerful and unpredictable, and are tremors as the earth settles down).
Effects of earthquakes are loss of life, buildings collapsed, fissures in the ground, broken water and sewage pipes resulting in typhoid and cholera, dams collapse and so floods can occur, and tidal waves can cause tsunamis to happen.
On 26 December 2004 a tsunami occurred in the Indian Ocean. It was the result of the Indio-Australian Plate subducting below the Eurasian Plate. It was caused by an earthquake measuring more than magnitude 9. The earthquake caused the seafloor to uplift, displacing the seawater above. The tsunami travelled at speeds up to 800km per hour. When the Tsunami reached the shores, the height of the wave increased to 15 metres in some areas.
A quarter of a million people died.
Two million people were made homeless.
People were swept away in the waters, which arrived rapidly and with little warning.
Thirteen countries were affected, the worst being Indonesia.
Indonesia was hit by the tsunami first. Forty-five minutes later the tsunami reached Thailand.
Mangrove swamps helped to act as a barrier to reduce the energy of the water in some areas.
Short-term aid, such as water purification tablets, temporary housing and medical supplies were given from international countries.
Islands reliant on tourism and fishing, such as the Maldives, had to rebuild their industries.
An early warning system between countries surrounding the Indian Ocean has been set up.
Bodies were buried in mass graves to prevent diseases spreading.
*she says as she asks for the links as well* xD
I haven't made most of them yet, i'm just gonna post everything as I make them
By topic they'll be more useful for people with other exam boards, but more useful to AQA students by exam :/