MeZala
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Enzymes denature at 40°C. The Sahara desert can have temperatures exceeding 47°C. How do the people of the Sahara desert survive without their enzymes denaturing?


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Ruby_1696
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Well, since I come from a hot country (summer temperatures range from 30-48 degrees Celsius) it is predominantly all down to behavioural factors.
- wearing loose clothes
- staying in the shade
- drinking a lot of water to prevent dehydration

However, if you are talking about the Sahara desert... people who tend to live there are quite used to the extremes in temperatures.
- genetic make up
- color of skin (usually darker) - not being racist - prevents sunburn

sorry I'm not much help, but this is what I think is the answer anyway
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Eloades11
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What Ruby said is essentially correct, these are measures which humans have adopted in order to regulate our body temperature. Whilst the outside temperature may be significantly higher than the optimum which our body requires to function, the inside of our body's temperature is tightly regulated to make sure it stays at the optimum. Even in extreme temperatures, our inside temperature remains the same. This temperature is tightly regulated by the hypothalamus, which in turn regulates various countermeasures such as sweating, shivering, making the hairs on your skin stand up ect.
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Ebony19
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What's enzyme denature? I googled it
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username1221160
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(Original post by Eloades11)
What Ruby said is essentially correct, these are measures which humans have adopted in order to regulate our body temperature. Whilst the outside temperature may be significantly higher than the optimum which our body requires to function, the inside of our body's temperature is tightly regulated to make sure it stays at the optimum. Even in extreme temperatures, our inside temperature remains the same. This temperature is tightly regulated by the hypothalamus, which in turn regulates various countermeasures such as sweating, shivering, making the hairs on your skin stand up ect.
You forgot countercurrent heat exchange. Everyone forgets countercurrent heat exchange.But, yeah, everything comes down to good thermoregulation that has developed over millions of years.
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beyknowles
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(Original post by Ebony19)
What's enzyme denature? I googled it
Wth lmao I was about to quote your post "What's enzyme denature?" to explain, and as I clicked "multi-quote", the "I googled it" appeared at the end haha
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Doctor_Einstein
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(Original post by Ebony19)
What's enzyme denature? I googled it
Where high temperatures cause the enzyme shape to alter and no longer function properly.
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Ruby_1696
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(Original post by Doctor_Einstein)
Where high temperatures cause the enzyme shape to alter and no longer function properly.
Yup precisely


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Ebony19
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(Original post by beyknowles)
Wth lmao I was about to quote your post "What's enzyme denature?" to explain, and as I clicked "multi-quote", the "I googled it" appeared at the end haha

(Original post by Doctor_Einstein)
Where high temperatures cause the enzyme shape to alter and no longer function properly.
So enzymes aren't part of us are they? Well they're obviously in us but they're like extras inside of us? Like catalysts? Are they fluids?
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Doctor_Einstein
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(Original post by Ebony19)
So enzymes aren't part of us are they? Well they're obviously in us but they're like extras inside of us? Like catalysts? Are they fluids?
Enzymes are as much a part of us as anything else in the body. The body is made of cells and fluids and cells consist of enzymes and other chemicals. We can't really say what is part of us and what isn't.
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Doctor_Einstein
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(Original post by Ebony19)
So enzymes aren't part of us are they? Well they're obviously in us but they're like extras inside of us? Like catalysts? Are they fluids?
Enzymes are proteins (a protein is a chain of amino-acids), that assist some sort of chemical reaction to take place. They are a type of catalyst that is seen in biological systems.
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Ebony19
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(Original post by Doctor_Einstein)
Enzymes are as much a part of us as anything else in the body. The body is made of cells and fluids and cells consist of enzymes and other chemicals. We can't really say what is part of us and what isn't.
I know no science I'm asking out of interest.

So is a enzyme a solid or a liquid or both?
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Ebony19
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(Original post by Doctor_Einstein)
Enzymes are proteins (a protein is a chain of amino-acids), that assist some sort of chemical reaction to take place. They are a type of catalyst that is seen in biological systems.
Aha I see . So enzyme denature is the destruction of the enzymes. And once they're destructed are there any methods or diseases whereby the enzymes are maybe partially destroyed and new enzymes are reintroduced into the body to create health again or is this not possible/you're not sure?
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Doctor_Einstein
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(Original post by Ebony19)
I know no science I'm asking out of interest.

So is a enzyme a solid or a liquid or both?
Is an atom a solid or a liquid? An atom is neither, it is just an atom. A collection of atoms however may be a solid or a liquid though.

An enzyme is a string of atoms, and is neither a solid or a liquid. However enzymes are usually found within the intracellular fluid, which is a liquid.
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Eloades11
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(Original post by Quantex)
You forgot countercurrent heat exchange. Everyone forgets countercurrent heat exchange.But, yeah, everything comes down to good thermoregulation that has developed over millions of years.

While I'm aware of what countercurrent heat exchange is, I'm unaware of any examples which occur in humans. You're welcome to inform me of any examples where a countercurrent heat system in humans takes place

If I went into specific mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans, for example vasodilation and vasoconstriction, I could've made quite a long post which was not my intention.
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anosmianAcrimony
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(Original post by Ebony19)
I know no science I'm asking out of interest.

So is a enzyme a solid or a liquid or both?
Enzymes are dissolved in your bodily fluids and in the internal fluid (or cytoplasm) of your cells. They're not exactly a solid or liquid or both - they are in the same state as sugar dissolved in your tea.

As for enzyme denaturation - an enzyme's ability to regulate a chemical reaction is determined by its shape, and if it isn't the right shape, the chemicals it works with won't be able to bind to it in the right way. An enzyme's shape is determined by the chemical bonds that hold it together. Under conditions of high or low pH or high temperature, some of those bonds break, causing the enzyme to change shape and lose the ability to do its job properly. This is known as denaturation, and if your enzymes are denaturing, you're in trouble.

It's interesting to note that the enzymes of bacteria that live in very hot or very acidic environments (such as hot springs and deep sea vents) are specially adapted to cope with those conditions - they use different sorts of bonds that do not break in the conditions in which they operate. However, that resilience comes at a cost: if those bacteria were introduced into an environment that you or I would consider normal, with a neutral pH and a comfortable temperature, their enzymes would cease to function and they would die! What constitutes hostile conditions is completely relative from a biochemical standpoint.
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Ruby_1696
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Enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up the rate of reaction without being used up itself. I don't know much about enzyme composition however enzymes can be found within some organelles such as lysosomes. Lysosomes release digestive enzymes which break down foreign material such as bacteria. In addition, of course u got ur protease, amylase, lipase, carbohydrate which break down specific substances in the food u eat. (Self explanatory in terms of the name of enzymes breaking down specific substance e.g. Lipase breaks down lipids) sorry I'm not much help :/


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Ebony19
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(Original post by Doctor_Einstein)
Is an atom a solid or a liquid? An atom is neither, it is just an atom. A collection of atoms however may be a solid or a liquid though.

An enzyme is a string of atoms, and is neither a solid or a liquid. However enzymes are usually found within the intracellular fluid, which is a liquid.
See my edit please


(Original post by anosmianAcrimony)
Enzymes are dissolved in your bodily fluids and in the internal fluid (or cytoplasm) of your cells. They're not exactly a solid or liquid or both - they are in the same state as sugar dissolved in your tea.
Aha makes sense
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Doctor_Einstein
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(Original post by Eloades11)
While I'm aware of what countercurrent heat exchange is, I'm unaware of any examples which occur in humans. You're welcome to inform me of any examples where a countercurrent heat system in humans takes place

If I went into specific mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans, for example vasodilation and vasoconstriction, I could've made quite a long post which was not my intention.
It is true that if not for vasodilation, the body would always be hotter than room air because of the heat generated through metabolic processes. However, vasodilation only allows the body to cool down to room temperature, and not below it. Only through evaporative cooling can the body drop its temperature to below that of room air on a very hot day.
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username1221160
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(Original post by Eloades11)
While I'm aware of what countercurrent heat exchange is, I'm unaware of any examples which occur in humans. You're welcome to inform me of any examples where a countercurrent heat system in humans takes place

If I went into specific mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans, for example vasodilation and vasoconstriction, I could've made quite a long post which was not my intention.
I did not mention countercurrent heat systems (I assume you are thinking of the various structures found in many marine vertebrates), merely countercurrent heat exchange. Of course it happens in humans. It will happen anywhere you have blood vessels of differential temperature flowing against one another. There is plenty of literature on it:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...60132300000615

http://jap.physiology.org/content/87/5/1957
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