Hello, Can any mark my finished Winston Churchill CA Essay On Language of Power Watch
Giving a band idea is good or a grade e.g. band 1 or 2 or a or c.
In this essay, I will be analysing the ‘Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat’ speech given by Winston Churchill on May 13th 1940, addressing the House of Commons and Great Britain. I will explore the language features and rhetorical techniques Churchill employs in his evocative speech to powerfully affect and move his audience. The main aim of this speech was to successfully persuade the British people for the necessity of war, which he believed would come to a ‘victorious conclusion' for his nation. It is worth noting that the speech was delivered shortly after Churchill was newly elected as the Prime Minister of Britain and this was his first speech and tries to create a favourable initial impression upon the audience; it truly represents his stance towards Hitler and Germany, providing an antithesis to Neville Chamberlain's Policy of Appeasement, of which he had been a long-time critic.
Churchill begins by immediately using the personal pronoun ‘I’ to show his own very personal agenda ‘to move’ his listeners and this is also effectively expressed through the use of modal auxiliary verbs. For instance, ‘I have’ portrays Churchill as a man of action because it clearly establishes for his audience that he has already made preparations ‘to prosecute the war with Germany’. This is clear use of ethos, because Churchill is gaining the trust and confidence of the audience by highlighting what he has done in preparation, this impresses the audience and makes him someone worth listened to and worthy of respect; and makes him a man of credibility.
Along with this, Churchill deftly employs superlatives to intensify and magnify this ‘ordeal of the most grievous kind’. He uses the word ‘grievous’ to stir up the emotions of the audience because it kindles ideas of undergoing a prolonged and distressed experience. The use of the superlative adjective ‘most’ suggests that there is nothing more painful, enduringly distressing and deplorable than what he is describing. He refers to the war as one of ‘the greatest battles in history’. Churchill suggests that there is no battle as epic and consequential than this one. Also, Churchill seems to project power and authority by making a sweeping statement about a war that had only just begun, even though in hindsight we now know it to be the greatest. As well as this, he emphasises how war will affect the future of the ‘British Empire’, through the use of ’history’. This is a way in which Churchill manipulates language to intensify appeal to wage war. He makes it so that the audience believe that there is no alternative but to fight the Nazi regime. The use of superlatives is used in order to enhance his message and show the enormity of the situation. Furthermore, since there were no TV’s at this time, Churchill uses his voice, by increasing his intonation, and intensifiers to accentuate his speech.
The speaker uses lexical field of war and hope, in order to emotionally affect and move the audience. Churchill uses the word ‘serve’ a term generally used in the army; this makes the audience feel dutiful and patriotic towards their nation, and shows the jingoism of Churchill, because of the way he makes it a duty to help in resolving the war for the ‘British Empire’. Moreover, when the speaker informs the audience about the ‘three party leaders’ agreeing to ‘serve’, shows the transcendence of the political disputes of the parties which creates a sense of unification amongst the nation. Churchill also uses the word ‘Buoyancy’, this is carefully picked as to be buoyant is to be resilient in spirit which means being able to cope with adversity while being able to not only accept what has happened but also continue forth with the ability to find some form of happiness. This shows Churchill’s extraordinary and competent leadership qualities, because he is able to handle the events at hand and ‘take up his task with buoyancy and hope’, making him a suited and compelling Prime Minister.
Churchill employs more obvious devices such as alliteration, repetition, exaggeration and rhetorical questions in order to narrow the options of the audience. ‘What is our policy?’ here Churchill uses hypophora and gives a pith and clear response, after his rhetorical question, which is to: ‘to wage war’. Churchill makes it so that the audience realise it may be hard to accept the idea of war, but is their only option, in hope of ‘survival for all that the British Empire has stood for’. He also uses repetition constantly to emphasise the importance of war and its effect, using ‘victory’, ‘no survival’ and ‘wage war’. These are uses of anaphora and hyperbole because he narrows the options of the audience and clearly explains to the audience of how to ‘wage war’ is the only way for ‘survival’ and ‘victory’ through his over-exaggerative speech. These are used in order to indoctrinate the idea of war and how it will lead Britain to a ‘victorious conclusion’. ’Conclusion’ is used to describe the ending or outcome of something, so Churchill uses it to show that they will win and not fail, he literally guarantees victory. He then moves on to say how war will create advancement for the British Empire and says ‘that mankind will move forward towards its goals’ this would motivate the audience and urge them to fight for the sake of the ‘nation’ and for the future and ‘survival’ of Britain. This use of powerful language motivates, inspires and makes the ‘nation of Britain’ gain confidence.
Churchill uses inclusive devices and words/phrases of unification in order to create rapport with the audience. Churchill constantly uses the personal pronoun ‘we’ to show equality and present war as a common vision of Churchill and his listeners. This is a very important technique as Churchill makes himself seem like one of the people, and shows that he knows what is best for Britain, but still keeps his audience in mind. Churchill highlights unity through the uses of ‘unity of the nation’ and ‘public interest’. This is significant as it helps the audience feel united and hopeful during a time where the people of Britain were full of anxiety due to their fear of Hitler’s roaring reign and ‘tyranny’ over Europe. Churchill comforts the audience and provides a sense of safety, because he reminds them of how they have one another in times of hardship.
Churchill appeals to the feelings and emotions of the audience, when using his famous quote ‘I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat’. These monosyllabic words are used to make clear the physical, mental and emotional sacrifice Churchill intends to commit to this cause. This use of pathos demonstrates Churchill’s ability to emotionally appeal with his listeners, who understand that ‘Blood’ is a result of physical warfare; ‘Toil’ as a result of immense hardship and ‘struggle’; ‘Tears’ are a result of mental fatigue, concern and ‘suffering’; and, ‘Sweat’ as a result of excessive physical labour and action, Churchill offers all of this in one compelling simple sentence. In addition, his use of the words ‘I have nothing to offer’ actually means the only thing he can offer is ‘blood, toil, tears and sweat’ which is a sincerely emotive way of saying to give his all.
Churchill also uses Biblical language in order to make his message more sincere and amplify its importance and portray the power and ‘strength’ of Britain. ‘With all our might and with all the strength that God can give us’, Churchill uses ‘God’ in order to make the audience aware of a greater power and provides them with a sense of hope, because they know they have a chance of winning if they have a supreme power in their favour. The use of ‘strength’ indicates the moral power, firmness and courage in which the people can receive from God through their belief in him. This humanises Churchill and makes himself seem more down to earth because he shows his strong faith and belief in ‘God’. Churchill depicts Hitler and his troops as a ‘monstrous tyranny’ this dehumanises Hitler and makes the audience feel that they must be stopped ‘at all costs’, because of the problems the audience have suffered due to the ‘dark lamentable catalogue of human crime’ the Nazi army have committed. This is clear use of logos, because Churchill manipulates the audience by using religion to his advantage, and Churchill uses religion in his speech to present war as a holy act for god, and provokes the audience. It should be noted that Christianity was the dominant religion of the 1940’s, so Churchill’s use of Biblical language was necessary in convincing the audience. Also Churchill stresses on the words I mentioned earlier using elongation and change in intonation, and uses pauses in order to speak in a holy and respectful fashion, which increases his message’s importance and his ability to emotionally move his audience. This all shows Churchill’s ability to reason through his logical way of persuasion using religion.
Overall, it is clear that Winston Churchill has employed a variety of techniques and rhetorical devices in his speech to convince Britain that war is the only option. His use of powerful and persuasive language is crafted for this purpose and he is perfect in every way he delivers his speech. He uses logos, pathos, and ethos in order to appeal to the audience and win over the audience.