Aqa psycholgy Watch

rachel102
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Hi, I'm doing AS psychology and I'm really struggling with developmental.. Learning theory in particular I really suck at operant conditioning as I have two different aqa text books and they both say different things for what operant conditioning is ? Can anyone tell me what it is thanks=]
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TSR Jessica
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Sorry you've not had any responses about this. Are you sure you’ve posted in the right place? Posting in the specific Study Help forum should help get responses.

I'm going to quote in Puddles the Monkey now so she can move your thread to the right place if it's needed. :yy:

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hibzmourad
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(Original post by rachel102)
Hi, I'm doing AS psychology and I'm really struggling with developmental.. Learning theory in particular I really suck at operant conditioning as I have two different aqa text books and they both say different things for what operant conditioning is ? Can anyone tell me what it is thanks=]
greetings and salutations!

so operant conditioning is based on the idea that attachment is a learned process, which conflicts with bowlby's nature perspective and idea of forming attachments being innate (inborn).

BF skinner devised the learning theory of operant conditioning through an experiment by using animals and placing them in a 'skinner' box. this consisted of a lever at one side of the box which when the animal was placed in this and pressed the lever, food would be rewarded. reward increases the probability of this behaviour happening again so the pressing of the lever is repeated. the food is a positive reinforcer and brings about feelings of pleasure since hunger is an uncomfortable state that the animal wants to eliminate.

if the lever was pressed and resulted in an electric shock, the action was not repeated. here, the lever acts as a punisher, which is a response in the environment that decreases the repetition of behaviour i.e. opposite of a reinforcer.

in the exam however, you are required to explain operant conditioning between the mother and her infant. the above is just an analogy that will help you to understand this.
what you need to know is:
  • infants are attached to the person who feeds them. they have primary drives (e.g. hunger) and are motivated to reduce this drive (drive reduction)
  • food brings about feelings of pleasure (positive reinforcerment) and reduces discomfort
  • the infants action/reflex response (e.g. crying) is repeated to receive the award of food which brings the mother/caregiver close
  • food is said to be the primary reinforcer, and the mother is the secondary reinforcer (as food never comes without the mother)
  • therefore an attachment forms as the presence of the mother alone reduces discomfort and brings about pleasure as the infant associates her with food


make sure you don't confuse this with classical conditioning. i hope this was of some help.if you'd like more info on this the take a look at this: http://www.simplypsychology.org/oper...ditioning.html

let me know if you have any more questions!!

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rachel102
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(Original post by hibzmourad)
greetings and salutations!

so operant conditioning is based on the idea that attachment is a learned process, which conflicts with bowlby's nature perspective and idea of forming attachments being innate (inborn).

BF skinner devised the learning theory of operant conditioning through an experiment by using animals and placing them in a 'skinner' box. this consisted of a lever at one side of the box which when the animal was placed in this and pressed the lever, food would be rewarded. reward increases the probability of this behaviour happening again so the pressing of the lever is repeated. the food is a positive reinforcer and brings about feelings of pleasure since hunger is an uncomfortable state that the animal wants to eliminate.

if the lever was pressed and resulted in an electric shock, the action was not repeated. here, the lever acts as a punisher, which is a response in the environment that decreases the repetition of behaviour i.e. opposite of a reinforcer.

in the exam however, you are required to explain operant conditioning between the mother and her infant. the above is just an analogy that will help you to understand this.
what you need to know is:
  • infants are attached to the person who feeds them. they have primary drives (e.g. hunger) and are motivated to reduce this drive (drive reduction)
  • food brings about feelings of pleasure (positive reinforcerment) and reduces discomfort
  • the infants action/reflex response (e.g. crying) is repeated to receive the award of food which brings the mother/caregiver close
  • food is said to be the primary reinforcer, and the mother is the secondary reinforcer (as food never comes without the mother)
  • therefore an attachment forms as the presence of the mother alone reduces discomfort and brings about pleasure as the infant associates her with food


make sure you don't confuse this with classical conditioning. i hope this was of some help.if you'd like more info on this the take a look at this: http://www.simplypsychology.org/oper...ditioning.html

let me know if you have any more questions!!

Thank you so much!!!
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Megst
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(Original post by rachel102)
Hi, I'm doing AS psychology and I'm really struggling with developmental.. Learning theory in particular I really suck at operant conditioning as I have two different aqa text books and they both say different things for what operant conditioning is ? Can anyone tell me what it is thanks=]
Learning theory is essentially... the idea that attachment is learnt.
Classical conditioning is where attachment forms because of association e.g Pavlov's dogs learnt to associate the sound of a bell with food. This led to them eventually producing saliva just at the sound despite no food being present. This can be linked to attachment as the infant learns to associate Mum with the food. The food is a reinforcer, the second reinforcer is the Mum, leading to attachment.
Operant conditioning is attachment forms because of a reward of punishment. For example, Skinners rats learned to 'read' words and follow actions given to them on a screen. If they performed the action they got food. If they didn't, they didn't get fed and were punished. This relates to attachment as the infant is hungry and uncomfortable. They have a drive to reduce their discomfort with food. They seek the proximity of Mum for food. They are then 'rewarded' with food and their discomfort is reduced. Once again, the food is the primary reinforcer and the Mum is the second reinforcer, leading to attachment. A major issue with this theory though is the role of food (Harlow's Monkey's for example) and Bowlby's theory of evolution! Hope I helped
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wispatwirl
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Hi, i was wondering whether we should just revise part of unit 2, for example; social influence, remembering and forgetting and autism. Because you get to choose one of each chapter in the exam for unit 2, so should i concentrate my revision on the idea that i'll answer a specific part of one question in the exam or should i revise everything so i have more of a choice, would be a great help if someone could answer this, thanks
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Ezme39
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(Original post by wispatwirl)
Hi, i was wondering whether we should just revise part of unit 2, for example; social influence, remembering and forgetting and autism. Because you get to choose one of each chapter in the exam for unit 2, so should i concentrate my revision on the idea that i'll answer a specific part of one question in the exam or should i revise everything so i have more of a choice, would be a great help if someone could answer this, thanks
I've posted on your thread just revise your own sections for the exam- if you know them well enough then you shouldn't need extra choice anyway
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charlie2466
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(Original post by rachel102)
Hi, I'm doing AS psychology and I'm really struggling with developmental.. Learning theory in particular I really suck at operant conditioning as I have two different aqa text books and they both say different things for what operant conditioning is ? Can anyone tell me what it is thanks=]
The learning theory suggests attachments develop through classical and operant conditioning.
According to classical conditioning food (unconditioned stimulus) will produce pleasure (unconditioned response). The mother gives the food and so becomes associated with the pleasure so she herself becomes a conditioned stimulus.
According to operant conditioning food satisfies the baby's hunger and makes it feel comfortable again. Food therefore becomes a primary reinforcer as it reduces the babies drive to seek food. The mother is associated with the food and so becomes a secondary reinforcer. The baby now becomes attached to and seeks proximity to the mother as she is a source of reward.
In evaluation, Harlow's research used monkeys who were given a wire mother (who provided food) and a soft cloth mother (who did not provide food). When scared the monkeys clung to the cloth mother suggesting the importance of comfort rather than food. Schaffer and Emerson also found that less than half of infants formed their first attachment to the person who fed them but rather to the person who was responsive to their needs. Bowlby's evolutionary theory aims to show that attachments are inmate and not formed on the basis of food alone.
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Megst
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(Original post by rachel102)
Hi, I'm doing AS psychology and I'm really struggling with developmental.. Learning theory in particular I really suck at operant conditioning as I have two different aqa text books and they both say different things for what operant conditioning is ? Can anyone tell me what it is thanks=]
Operant conditioning is essentially a reward or a punishment. This relates to development as the baby has a drive to reduce their discomfort. This leads them to receiving food from the mother, rewarding their desire to seek proximity and food. This means food acts as a primary reinforcing in forming an attachment
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