Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#1
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#1
I made another thread, but everything I posted got kinda buried in comments, so please don't comment on here! If you want to say thanks give it a rep, and if you have any questions message me, just please please please don't post here Thanks people

Okay everyone seems to be agreeing with Toy Soldiers saying that this isn't my own thread, so yeah comment stuff at will but um pls don't ask if i have made notes for something that i've already posted but you haven't looked through the pages for
1
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#2
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#2
Physical Education - Glossary - Edexcel

Spoiler:
Show


Physical Education Glossary

Aerobic - ‘With oxygen’. If exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen muscles need.
Agility - The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body.
Anabolic steroids - Drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and muscle growth.
Anaerobic - ‘Without oxygen’. If exercise is done in short, fast bursts, the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen to muscles as fast as the cells use them.
Anorexic - Pertaining to anorexia – a prolonged eating disorder due to loss of appetite.
Balance - The ability to retain the body’s centre of mass (gravity) above the base of support with reference to static (stationary), or dynamic (changing), conditions of movement, shape and orientation.
Balanced diet - A diet which contains an optimal ratio of nutrients.
Beta blockers - Drugs that are used to control heart rate and that have a calming and relaxing effect.
Blood pressure - The force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels.
Body composition - The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone.
Cardiac output - The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute.
Cardiovascular fitness - The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time.
Competence - The relationship between: skill, the selection and application of skills, tactics, strategies and compositional ideas; and the readiness of the body and mind to cope with the activity. It requires an understanding of how these combine to produce effective performances in different activities and contexts.
Coordination - The ability to use two or more body parts together.
Diuretics - Drugs that elevate the rate of bodily urine excretion.
Ectomorph - A somatotype, individuals with narrow shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by thinness.
Endomorph - A somatotype, individuals with wide hips and narrow shoulders, characterised by fatness.
Erythropoietin (EPO) - A type of peptide hormone that increases the red blood cell count.
Exercise - A form of physical activity done to maintain or improve health and/or physical fitness, it is not competitive sport.
Fitness - The ability to meet the demands of the environment.
FITT - Frequency, intensity, time, type (used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve overload).
Flexibility - The range of movement possible at a joint.
Health - A state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
Healthy, active lifestyle - A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing, and which includes regular exercise and physical activity.
Heart rate - The number of times the heart beats each minute.
Individual differences/needs - Matching training to the requirements of an individual.
Isometric contractions - Muscle contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter, for example, when pressing against a stationary object.
Isotonic contraction - Muscle contraction that results in limb movement.
Joint - A place where two or more bones meet.
Mesomorph - A somatotype, individuals with wide shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by muscularity.
Methods of training - Interval training, continuous training, circuit training, weight training, Fartlek training, cross training.
Muscular endurance - The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired.
Muscular strength - The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance.
Narcotic analgesics - Drugs that can be used to reduce the feeling of pain.
Obese - A term used to describe people who are very overfat.
Overfat - A way of saying you have more body fat than you should have.
Overload - Fitness can only be improved through training more than you normally do.
Overweight - Having weight in excess of normal (not harmful unless accompanied by over fatness)
Oxygen debt - The amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available).
PAR-Q - Physical activity readiness questionnaire.
PEP - Personal Exercise Programme.
Peptide hormones - Drugs that cause the production of other hormones.
Performance - How well a task is completed.
PESSCL - PE and School Sport Club Links.
Physical activity - Any form of exercise or movement; physical activity may be planned and structured or unplanned and unstructured.
Power - The ability to do strength performances quickly (power = strength x speed).
Progressive overload - To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury.
Reaction time - The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement.
Reversibility - Any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training.
Recovery - The time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition.
Rest - The period of time allotted to recovery.
RICE - Rest, ice, compression, elevation (a method of treating injuries).
Self-esteem - Respect for, or a favourable opinion of, oneself.
SMART - Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-bound.
Somatotypes - Classification of body type.
Specificity - Matching training to the requirements of an activity.
Speed - The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time.
Stimulants - Drugs that have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and/or physical alertness.
Stroke volume - The volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction.
Target zone - The range within which an individual needs to work for aerobic training to take place (60-80 per cent of maximum heart rate).
Training - A well-planned programme which uses scientific principles to improve performance, skill, game ability and motor and physical fitness.
Training thresholds - The boundaries of the target zone.
Underweight - Weighing less than is normal, healthy or required.

0
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#3
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#3
History - Race Relations in the USA - AQA

Spoiler:
Show


Attitudes in the Southern States 1950's

  • Jim Crow Laws - Segregation in churches, hospitals, theaters and schools between white people and black people, in the Southern States
  • Poll Tax - A tax had to be paid in order to be able to vote, and most black people were too poor to pay the tax.
  • Literacy Tests - In order to be able to vote, people had to prove that they could read difficult extracts. If black people passed these tests, they would then be threatened and attacked so that they would not vote.
  • The KKK - founded in 1866 by confederate soldiers. Most of its members were White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) and wanted to show that they were better and more powerful than black people, immigrants, Jews, Roman Catholics, communists and socialists.
  • Even though the KKK was banned in 1872, it carried on illegally and was popular, including judgesandpoliticians within it's members.
  • Schools for Black Americans were set up, but many were forced to close.
  • Black Americans were likely to be threatened if they gave evidence against a white person.
  • Under the Jim Crow Segregation Laws: in Arizona - the marriage between a white and a black shall be null and void, and in Florida - the schools for white and black children shall be conducted separately.
  • Many Black Americans were forced to leave Southern America due to poor living conditions.

Rosa Parks / Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955-1956

  • On December 1st 1955 in Montgomery Alabama, Rosa Parks was arrested and fined after she refused to give up her seat for a white man.
  • The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People) led by 26-yr old Martin Luther King, organised a Bus Boycott in protest.
  • African Americans supported the Boycott by walking to work or car pooling for a year, until the Supreme Court finally ruled that Alabama's Bus Segregation Laws were Unconstitutional.
  • The sucess of this peaceful protest was inspirational to those who opposed segregation in the south, as it proved Black Americans could organise themselves effectively.
  • The Boycott involved 170,00 Black Americans, and 200 vehicles used for car-pooling.
  • However, the family of Rosa Parks was targeted by racists, so she was forced to move from Montgomery to Detroit in 1957.

Brown v.s Topeka Board of Education 1954

  • Linda Brown was a seven year old black girl. She had to walk 20 blocks to school even though there was a school for white people two blocks from her home.
  • The NAACP helped her father to bring a legal case against the education board.
  • On 19 May 1954 the court declared that segregation was against the law and the constitution of the USA.
  • The Board of Education of Topeka and every other education board were forced to bring segregation to anend.
  • But many schools continued to refuse to implement this, and by 1956, in six southern states, not a single black child was attending any school where there were white children.
  • In 1955, membership of the KKK grew dramatically as a response to this.
  • No date was set by which schools must have ended segregation, so nothing changed.
  • The district court ruled that the old law 'separate but equal' still applied.

Little Rock High School 1957

  • In September 1957, nine black pupils tried to attend a school for white children
  • The Governor of Arkansas (Orval Faubus) sent National Guard soldiers to prevent the black children from entering the school.
  • The black people made a case against the Governor, won, and the soldiers forced to leave.
  • The black pupils now had the right to go to the school and President Eisenhower sent 1,000 paratroopers / soldiers to look after them for the rest of the year.
  • By 1960, out of a total of 2 million black school children in the state of Arkansas, only 2,600 were going to the same school as white children.
  • The Little Rock High School case was publicised to the rest of the world, who were shocked.
  • However, 4 parents of the black children lost their jobs, and only 1 of the students graduated.

Freedom Rides 1961

  • Segregation continued on buses that took people from one state to another. In the north, black people had the right to sit in the same place as white people to wait for buses, but in the south they had to sit in separate waiting areas.
  • In 1961 the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) organised freedom trips. Black people traveled on buses across the country from one state to the next without getting off the bus. This led to a great deal of conflict between the black and white people and the Government sent 500 soldiers to protect the black people.
  • Robert Kennedy (brother of JFK), who was the National Attorney, stopped segregation within the public facilities associated with transport – buses, railways and airports. By 1963, this had extended to include most public facilities.

Freedom Marches 1963

  • The council of Birmingham, Alabama, refused to let black people use entertainment facilities and leisure centers in the town.
  • In 1963 Martin Luther King organised a march in which 30,000 black people took part.
  • Each day, 500 people were arrested. The police, under the orders of Eugene 'Bull' Connor, treated the protesters cruelly, using water cannons and attacking people with dogs and batons.
  • All this was shown on television and some of America's white population began supporting the black people’s cause.
  • President Kennedy sent soldiers to make Birmingham council put an end to segregation.
  • JFK said that the civil rights movement should 'Thank god for 'Bull Connor'' as he was the one who had made many white people and the government realise the injustices faced by black people.

Washington March 1963

  • In August 1963, 250,000 people (including 50,000 white people) took part in a march to Washington DC.
  • Martin Luther King delivered his famous 'I have a dream' speech, calling for equal rights for all of America.
  • This put pressure on Congress to pass Kennedy's Civil Rights Bill.
  • The event received worldwide media coverage, but the federal government took no political action to deal with the issues raised.
  • Over 2000 buses, 21 trains, 10 airliners and many cars all converged to Washington
  • The march began at the Washington Monument, and finished and the Lincon Memorial.
  • Less than a month after he delivered this speech, a bombing killed 4 young girls in a Birmingham Church.

Black Power Movement 1960's

  • Malcolm X was a Muslim, and wanted Black Americans to be more militant demanding change.
  • He campaigned for the Nation of Islam, a separate USA for Blacks.
  • He wanted to confront racism and, if necessary, meet violence with violence
  • 1965, 50% of blacks in the northern states lived in poverty, many in city ghettos.
  • 1967, 33% of black families lived below the poverty line.
  • “Black Power” slogan emerged in 1966 – idea that Blacks should control their own communities.
  • At the Mexico Olympics in 1986, the top three athletes used the medal ceremony for the 200m sprint to protest about the lack of real civil rights in America. Smith won gold, and Carlos won bronze. Both woreone black glove each, and the archway that their raised arms created was meant to represent unityin America. They also wore black socks and no shoes to represent the poverty that many Black Americans suffered from.
  • Their gesture was viewed as a Black Power salute, and was watched my tens of millions of people across the world. Both men were expelled from the Olympic village, suspended from the American Olympic Committee, and ordered to leave Mexico City, for bringing politics to a non-political event.

Martin Luther King as a Protest Organiser 1955-1956

  • In 1955, King was asked to be leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott, sparked off by Rosa Parks, and he was head of the Montgomery Improvement Association.
  • He valued the importance of non-violent protesting.
  • His house was bombed, and he was the first boycott leader to be put on trial, but he chose to go tojailrather than pay a $10 fine.
  • In 1957 he set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), but this lacked organisation and mass support, so achieved very little after the Bus Boycott.
  • In 1961 King was invited to lead a march after students from Georgia, Albany staged sit-ins at the bus station, hundreds of freedom riders were arrested, but failed to achieve change.
  • In 1963 King was arrested at Birmingham, Alabama, after he expected there to be white violence which he hoped would raise national sympathy.
  • In solitary confinement he wrote his 'letter from Birmingham jail' on toilet paper, which was smuggled out by his wife.
  • The Children's Crusade saw children met with police violence, which gained publicity.
  • In support of the Civil Rights Bill, Martin Luther King organised the March on Washington in August 1963.

Civil Rights Act 1964 / Nobel Peace Prize

  • The Civil Rights Act 1964 was the act that made the biggest difference to the lives of black people in America. Martin Luther King's campaigning had helped to achieve this.
  • The Act prohibited racial discrimination and prejudice in employment.
  • It also gave black pupils the right to use any public facilities funded by the government, eg schools, hospitals, churches and theaters.
  • It established the Equal Opportunities Commission to look into any complaintsinvolvingdiscrimination and prejudice.
  • In 1964 Martin Luther King was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize.
  • The Voting Rights Act followed in 1965, removing many of the barriers which had ensured African Americans could be disenfranchised in some states.

Race Riots / MLK's Assassination

  • 1964: The Harlem Riot and the New York Race Riot take place.
  • In 1965, King tried to organise a march from Selma to Montgomery, but this was aborted because of violent white protests and police violence against demonstrations.
  • On March 21st 1965, 10,000 people joined King marching from Selma to Montgomery, Only 300 people were allowed to take part, but they were joined by 25,000 more people in Montgomery to present apetition for voting rights.
  • August 1965: A total of 34 people are killed in the Watts area of Los Angeles, and another 1,072 are injured during a riot lasting six days.
  • Martin Luther King was assassinated on 4th April 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee, where he was attending a march in support of striking sanitation workers.
  • He was shot dead on his hotel balcony, and President Lyndon B Johnson called for a national day ofmourning.

Race Relations Timeline 1942-1968

  • 1942 - Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was established
  • 1946 - Supreme Court declared segregation on buses that crossed state borders was illegal
  • 1948 - Discrimination in the armed forces was banned
  • 1952 - First year since 1881 without a lynching
  • 1954 - Supreme Court declared segregation in schools to be unconstitutional
  • 1955 - Montgomery Bus Boycott began after the arrest of Rosa Parks
  • 1957 - Little Rock clash, Martin Luther King president of the SCLC, Civil Rights Act passed.
  • 1960 - First studen sit-ins against segregation at lunch counters occurs
  • 1961 - The arrest of Freedom Riders in the South
  • 1963 - Washington March, and four black children killed in Birmingham Church Bombing
  • 1964 - Civil Rights Act passed by Congress, Martin Luther King awarded Nobel Peace Prize
  • 1965 - Selma Montgomery marches, Voting Rights Act, Malcom X assassinated, Watts riot
  • 1956 - Stokely Carmichael introduced the idea of Black Power
  • 1968 - Mexico Olympics Black Power Salute, Martin Luther King Assassinated



OKAY here are some more notes - I made two sets because I thought I lost the following ones, but I found them YAY i'm so stupid I can't even save files properly without thinking they're pictures of cats or something

Unit 2-Section B
Race Relations in the USA, 1955–1968

Key issue: To what extent did racial inequality exist in the USA in the 1950s?
The Second World War can be seen as a starting point for Black activism and a more militant stance in the fight for civil rights .In the 1940s and 1950s black Americans were still denied their rights as promised by the American constitution. Many southern states were still segregated and racism was common

Segregation laws;
Black people in America were subjected to racial discrimination, to racial prejudice and to persecution. The ‘Jim Crow' laws in the southern states made black people outsiders and second class citizens.
• Public facilities, such as parks, buses, school and universities were segregated.
• Black people could not vote Voter registration was made impossible for black people e.g. In Mississippi only 5% of black people were registered to vote.
• Black people were not protected by the law, Judges, all white juries and the police force discriminated against black people.
• Black people suffered economically, earning half the wages of white people doing the same job.
• Black people suffered violence, including lynching, at the hands of racist groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.
• In the North and West of the USA black people could vote and have their children educated, 7 million blacks migrated from the southern states.

Attitudes in the Southern States;
However there were powerful forces prepared to resist changes to the status quo. Many white people saw black civil rights as a threat to their way of life and were prepared to resist changes in any way possible.

The Ku Klux Klan;
• Bombing campaigns were used to drive blacks out of neighbourhoods; Birmingham, Alabama was nicknamed 'bombingham.' Klan members cooperated with Mayors and Governors to resist social change.
• Physical violence, intimidation and murder were used against Civil Rights activists.
• The 1963 the bombing of a Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, which killed four girls, was by members of the KKK.
• In 1963 Medgar Evers, the NAACP organiser in Mississippi was murdered by the Klan.
• The 1964 murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi was the work of the Klan.

Black Americans began to gain civil rights by using the Supreme Court. They sought to ensure that the Constitution that promised all citizens certain rights was implemented

Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955–1956;
• To some people Rosa Parks is ‘the mother of the Civil Rights Movement'.
• She refused to give up her seat on a public bus to a white passenger.
• She was a member of the NAACP, after her arrest a bus boycott was organised.
• The boycott lasted for 381 days, 90% of black people took part and greatly cut the bus company revenues.
• A Supreme Court ordered the buses in Montgomery to be desegregated and the boycott ended.
• The boycott had been organised by Martin Luther King Jr; his speeches made him a national figure
• The boycott showed that non-violent direct action could work, that by refusing to cooperate with the system it could be changed.

Brown v.s. Topeka Board of Education;
• Schools in the southern states were segregated by law. They were deemed to be “separate but equal', there was no discrimination if black and whites had the same facilities and equipment.
• In 1954 the Supreme Court decided that segregated education could not be considered to be equal. The NAACP had argued that black children had been put at a disadvantage by the school system and that they were not being prepared to live in a mixed race society and would be disadvantaged in later life.
• The Supreme Court ordered that segregation in schools was to be phased out over time, “with all deliberate speed.”


Little Rock High School, 1957;
• However the decision of the Supreme Court was met by bitter hostility in some states.
• In 1957 nine black students sued for the right to attend Little Rock High School in Arkansas.
• The Governor of Arkansas, Orval Faubus, made a stand against integration and the decision of the Supreme Court. He called out the National Guard to prevent the nine students entering the school.
• President Eisenhower intervened. He ordered the National Guard back to barracks and sent in the 101st Airborne Division to protect the students.
• Only one student graduated. At the end of the year the school system closed rather than continue to integrate. Central High was not integrated until 1960,
• Little Rock's schools were not fully integrated until 1972.

Living standards for African Americans;
• Discrimination meant it was difficult for blacks to find employment. Great thousands of blacks move north in search of work after the turn of the century
•In crude terms 50% of Black Americans lived in poverty, unemployment amongst blacks was twice that of white Americans.
• Black aspirations grew and they demanded to be allowed to join the consumer boom, to move out of the ghettos and into the suburbs and to leave jobs in agriculture for higher paid jobs in factories.
• There were changes in sport; opportunities for black people were severely limited. In 1947 Jackie Robinson became the first black player in major league baseball. Black players were barred from American football until 1946 and from basketball until 1950.

Key issue: How effective were the methods used by members of the Civil Rights Movement between 1961–1968?
• The Civil Rights Movement is an ‘umbrella term' for the organisations who sought to end racial discrimination and gain the vote for black people in the southern states. Groups involved included the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE), the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC), and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
• There was a change in tactics from using a gradualist legalistic approach that was bringing about changes in the law, to using mass action, direct action, nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience.

Sit-ins, 1960;
• The Civil Rights Movement was boosted by student sit-ins at a Woolworth's store in North Carolina.
• Four black students sat down at a segregated lunch counter against the refusal to admit black people.
• The sit-ins were copied in other stores in other towns and gained national attention. The movement also targeted parks, beaches, libraries, theatres, cinemas, museums and other public places.

The Freedom Rides, 1961;
• In 1960 the Supreme Court had ended segregated for passengers travelling on inter-state buses.
• Civil Rights activists travelled on inter-state buses seeking to end segregation, not only on the buses but also the bus stations, waiting rooms and at drink fountains.
• They were met with violent mobs, in Anniston, Alabama, a bus was firebombed. Passengers were beaten by gangs of opponents. Freedom riders were arrested for ‘breaching the peace' by using “white only” facilities. More than 300 were jailed in Mississippi. President Kennedy had to intervene and a new desegregation order was issued.

Freedom Marches 1963;
In 1963 the SCLC had a more focused campaign in Birmingham, Alabama.
The campaign aimed to end segregation in the town centre.
The campaign was met by brutality from Eugene ‘Bull' Connor.
• The authorities claimed all protests were illegal and so the campaigners planned a mass arrest. King was arrested.
• As the campaign faltered one thousand students joined in, the Children's Crusade. More than 600 were arrested.
• The next day fire hoses and dogs were set on the children. Pictures shown on television outraged the public and President Kennedy had to intervene, he proposed to introduce a Civil Rights Bill. Governor Wallace officially ended segregation but the campaigners were subjected to violence.
• Four young girls were killed when opponents of the changes firebombed a church in Birmingham.
The Washington March, 1963;
• In August 1963 a ‘March on Washington' was planned by all the major civil rights organisations.
• It called for civil rights legislation, job creation, an end to discrimination at work, decent housing, the right to vote and integrated education.
• Between 200,000 and 300,000 people took part, it was shown on national television. King made his ‘I have a dream speech' which had a huge impact on public opinion. After the march the leaders met President Kennedy who was committed to passing a Civil Rights Bill but lacked enough support in Congress.
• After his assassination in November 1963 it was the new President, Lyndon Johnson, who used his influence to secure its passage.

The Civil Rights Act, 1964;
• In 1964 the Civil Rights campaign gathered momentum. Thousands of activists set up ‘Freedom Schools' in Mississippi to help black voters to register. They were met with arrests, beatings, arson and violence as the white residents of the state objected to outsiders trying to change their lifestyles.
• In June 1964 three civil rights workers disappeared, their bodies were discovered weeks later, victims of the Ku Klux Klan.
• The public outrage helped the passage of the Civil Rights Bill and turned the media spotlight onto the persecution of blacks in the southern states.
• On 2 July 1964 the Civil Rights Act was passed. It banned discrimination based on “race, colour, religion or national origin” in jobs and housing.

Selma to Montgomery Marches, 1965;
• Voter registration had had little success in Selma, Alabama. (Less than 3% of those blacks entitled to register had been able to do so.)
• Martin Luther King Jr, proposed to lead marches in the town. The marches were met with violence. A proposed march from Selma to Montgomery was met by state troopers, mounted police and police and driven back into the town. It became known as ‘Bloody Sunday' and the violence was shown on TV.
• It helped President Johnson pass the Voting Rights Act, 1965 which ended voting discrimination and allowed government agents to inspect voting procedures. Within four years black voting doubled.

The Black Power movement in the 1960s;
• The Black Power movement was a Black Nationalist movement, it did not want integration, it wanted separation.
• The Civil Rights Movement is seen as being personified by Martin Luther King, Jr. He is seen as its figurehead and representative of the movement.
• However this approach was rejected by some groups, they called for separatism not integration, they were anti-American in their appeal, the Nation of Islam called for separation not equality. Its Black Power movement had wider aims; it called for racial dignity, for economic and political self sufficiency and freedom from white oppression. The Black Power movement challenged two of MLK's main ideals, integration and non-violence. King described the Nation of Islam as a 'hate group'.
• The Black Power movement was urban based. After the Second World War more than half of America's black population lived in the north and west's industrial cities. As the industries in these cities went into decline the job market collapsed. Poor blacks became concentrated in neighbourhoods with poor quality housing, poor quality education and high crime rates.
• The cities experienced race riots between 1965 and 1967. There were riots in Harlem, in Philadelphia, in Watts, Los Angeles; in Detroit, in Chicago, in Seattle, in Atlanta, in Cleveland.
• It was against this background that the ‘Black Power' movement emerged. One of its early spokesmen was Stokely Carmichael the SNCC leader in 1966. He spoke of black communities arming themselves and confronting the Ku Klux Klan.
• People in the movement referred to themselves as ‘Afro-Americans' rather than ‘negroes'. They spoke of black pride and identity.

Malcolm X;
He aimed to improve the lives of Black Americans. Malcolm X joined the NOI. He wanted black Americans to rise up and create their own separate black state in America, by force if necessary. He was accused of encouraging racial hatred and violence. Malcolm X raised awareness of the hardships in the ghettoes. Those born in poverty could not break out from the ghetto. Only 32% of ghetto pupils finished High School.
Low skilled jobs were in decline, 46% of those unemployed were black. The ghettoes were places of unemployment, poor housing, poverty, poor education and violence. They exploded into violence each summer between 1964-68. The civil rights campaigners such as King seemed to offer the people of the ghetto nothing. So they looked to new leaders such as Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael.

The Black Panther Party;
Formed by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California. They followed the ideas of Malcolm X; they aimed to achieve equality “by any means necessary”. They sought to confront police brutality. They wore black leather jackets, berets, and light blue shirts. They wore ‘afros’. They never amounted to more than 5000 members. They gained admiration for their work in the ghettos; they aimed to expose police brutality. However they had no coherent plan or strategy and were targeted by the police, by 1970 they had disappeared.

Black Power protests at the Mexico Olympics, 1968;
Black Power achieved a stage, live on international television at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. Tommy Smith and John Carlos, who won Gold and Bronze medals, gave the black-gloved Black Power salute during the medal ceremony. They were thrown out of the Games and were given a life time ban by the IOC.

Key issue: How important was Martin Luther King in the fight for Civil Rights in the USA?
To many people King is the crucial figure in the civil rights campaign; to others his importance has been overblown. They argue you need to consider the roles of other individuals and organisations in the campaign. There is also controversy surrounding his personal reputation and his organisational ability.

His role as a protest organiser, 1955–1963;
• King began work as a Pastor in a church in Montgomery, Alabama in 1954.
• In 1955 he was asked to be leader of the bus boycott sparked off by the Rosa Parks incident. He was the head of the Montgomery Improvement Association. He stressed the protest was 'non-violent protest'.
• His house was bombed and he was the first boycott leader to be put on trial. He chose jail over a $10 fine.
• King preferred mass action, direct protests. The NAACP preferred to use the courts. His rhetoric pushed him to the forefront of the movement and in 1957 he set up a new organisation, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
• In 1960 he moved to Atlanta, Georgia. The SCLC concentrated on the situation in the South, as it was a Church led organisation, preaching non-violence, it did not draw the hostility that other groups did.
• King's aim was to attract national attention to racial inequality. Marches did gain publicity but the SCLC lacked organisation and mass support and did little to encourage Southern blacks to vote. King believed that black people lacked the political power to bring about change. He organised campaigns and demonstrations to gain publicity for the lack of black voter registration. His frequent arrests gained publicity at home and abroad. The Civil Rights Movement was boosted by the Sit-ins by students in North Carolina. King had nothing to do with this at the start. Up to 70,000 students joined in the protests and King was swept along by the direct action. The focus moved from tackling discrimination through the courts to mass direct action and it was the Student Non-Violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC) who were taking the lead. Another group CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) joined the civil rights movement with the Freedom Rides (1961). These gained publicity and forced the Federal Government to intervene. They enforced the Supreme Court ruling that desegregated interstate travel. In 1961 students from Albany, Georgia, staged sit-ins at the bus station. Hundreds of freedom riders were arrested. King was invited to become involved, he led a march, but it failed to achieve any change. King recognised it as a defeat.
In 1963 King turned his attention to segregation and inequality in Birmingham, Alabama. King was determined to make an impact, he expected there to be white violence which he hoped would gain national sympathy. King was arrested and put in solitary confinement, his 'Letter from Birmingham Jail', written on toilet paper and smuggled out by his wife saw King released by the intervention of President
Kennedy. The Children's Crusade saw the SCLC recruit schoolchildren to protest and was met with police violence. King gained the publicity he wanted, it persuaded President Kennedy to push through a Civil Rights Bill. It was in support of that Civil Rights Bill that King organised the March on Washington in August, 1963. The march saw the civil rights groups work together. It impressed television audiences globally.

Winning the Nobel Peace Prize, 1964;
In December 1964 King won the Nobel Peace Prize, at 35 years of age, he was the youngest man to ever receive the award. There had been little change in Birmingham; four black school girls were killed by a bomb at a Sunday school in September 1963. The leaders of Birmingham no longer wanted outside help in their struggle. He began to recognise problems in the ghettos in the northern cities. In 1965 Selma, Alabama was chosen as the new focus of the struggle. Half the population was black, segregation was strictly enforced, economic differences between black and white were marked. The SCLC would campaign to increase black voter registration. A march was organised from Selma to Montgomery. State troopers attacked the march with clubs and tear gas, it was called 'Bloody Sunday'. However it led to increasing bitterness amongst the civil rights movement when the SCLC withdrew and the people of Selma were left to pick up the pieces.

Race Riots, 1965–1967;
• The riots in the ghettos of the cities in the North and West saw King change direction. King began to define freedom in terms of economic equality not political equality; the vote was no longer enough. He called for a 'better distribution of the wealth of the USA.' He focussed on social and political equality, he chose Chicago as the battle ground.
• However he had no real programme and attempted to concentrate on housing issues. He failed to gain much support; the black population splintered and supported various other groups. King received little support from the Federal Government,
• The President turned against King after he criticised the Vietnam War.
• The Meredith March, 1966, planned by James Meredith, the first black student at the University of Mississippi, was to be a non violent protest. It was a march from Memphis to Jackson (220 miles) calling for blacks to vote. Meredith was shot on the second day. Black groups vowed to continue the protest, King arrived to join the march. The march split between king and his followers who urged peaceful protest and younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael who demanded 'Black Power' and rejected passive resistance. King felt he had lost his way; the civil rights coalition was collapsing. King wrote a book, 'Where Do We Go From Here? (1967). He called for an improvement in economic conditions, aware that the gaining of votes had cost little, but what he was now proposing was a redistribution of wealth, he planned to broaden his appeal and make it a war on poverty.
• However his Poor People's Campaign failed to take off.

The assassination of Martin Luther King;
King had made a speech in Memphis, Tennessee, in support of striking workers. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968. Riots broke out in 110 cities across the USA.

1
reply
shawn_o1
Badges: 21
Rep:
?
#4
Report 4 years ago
#4
0
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#5
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#5
Geography - The Restless Earth - AQA


Spoiler:
Show


THE RESTLESS EARTH

KEY TERMS:
Crust – The outer layer of the earth
Plate – A section of the earth’s crust
Plate Boundary – The boundary where two plates meet
Mantle – The dense, mostly solid layer between the outer core and the crust
Convection Currents – The circular currents of heat in the mantle
Subduction – The sinking of oceanic crust at a destructive margin
Collision – The meeting of two plates of continental crust that come together and buckle
Destructive Plate Margin – Where two plates are moving towards each other
Constructive Plate Margin – Where two plates are moving apart and magma rises
Conservative Plate Margin – Where two plates slide past each other along a fault and jerk
Fold Mountains – Large mountain ranges formed by crumpled rock layers forced together
Ocean Trenches – Deep Ocean sections where an oceanic plate sinks below a continental
Composite Volcano – A steep-sided volcano made of lava and ash
Shield Volcano – A broad-sided volcano mainly made of lava
Supervolcano – A massive volcano that erupts at least 1,000km³ of material

The Structure of the Earth

The earth is made of four main layers (inner core, outer core, mantle and crust).The crust is split into plates of varying sizes and at plate margins it may move, determined by the convection currents in the layer of mantle below. In some cases plates are moving apart (destructive plate margin) and sometimes they are moving together (constructive plate margin).
The main areas of land are made up of continental crust, which is 35-70km thick, very old, cannot be renewed or destroyed and is relatively light. The ocean floor is made of oceanic crust, which is 6-10km thick, very young, can be renewed or destroyed, and is relatively heavy and so can sink.

Types of Plate Margin

There are two types of Destructive plate margins – Subduction (where the dense oceanic crust sinks below the lighter continental crust and is melted to form magma under high pressure) and Collision (where two continental plates collide rather than one sinking beneath the other). In Subduction, the oceanic crust melts in the Subduction Zone. Energy is released by the movement, and may be felt on the surface as an earthquake, which the molten magma may rise up and cause a volcanic eruption. A deep ocean trench is also formed. The continental crust is crumpled upwards into Fold Mountains.

At a Constructive plate margin the plates are moving apart and this happens mostly under the ocean. The gap left is filled by magma rising up from the mantle below to form volcanoes. Some of these volcanoes have grown large enough to become volcanic islands such as Hawaii and Iceland.

At a Conservative plate margin the plates slide past each other. The line of weakness where the two plates meet is called a fault. Pressure builds up until the plates jerk past each other and cause an earthquake. The land around it becomes crumpled and ridged, for example the San Andreas Fault in California.

Fold Mountains

Fold Mountains occur near destructive plate boundaries. Examples of Fold Mountains include the Alps, Rockies, Andes and Himalayas.
1. Where an area of sea separates two plates, sediments settle on the sea floor in depressions called geosynclines. These sediments gradually become compressed into sedimentary rock.
2. When the two plates move towards each other again, the layers of sedimentary rock on the sea floor become crumpled and folded.
3. Eventually the sedimentary rock appears above sea level as a range of Fold Mountains.
Where the rocks are folded upwards, they are called anticlines. Where the rocks are folded downwards, they are called synclines. Severely folded and faulted rocks are called nappes.
The Alps
The Alps were formed 30-40 million years ago. The African and Eurasian plates moved together to fold layers of sedimentary rock into parallel ranges. Some of the fold were severe, and caused overfolds and nappes as well as synclines and anticlines. The highest peak is Mount Blanc (4810m). Problems for people living in the Alps are that communication if often poor, there are few jobs, the climate is cold and wet, there can be dangerous avalanches and landslides, and farming is hard because of the steep slopes and short growing seasons.
Human Activities: Winter sports such as skiing in resorts, climbing and hiking in the summer months, summer lakeside holidays, agriculture takes place mainly on south facing slopes and includes cereals, sugar beet, vines and fruits, forestry in coniferous forests for fuel and building, hydroelectric power (HEP) - steep slopes and glacial melt water are ideal for generating HEP.

Composite and Shield Volcanoes

Composite volcanoes are formed at Destructive plate margins, and have steep sides and narrow bases. They have infrequent but violent eruptions, and secondary cones with layers of thick lava and ash. Shield volcanoes are formed at Constructive plate margins, and have gentle slopes and wide bases with a low, rounded peak. There are layers of runny lava and little ash.
When magma reaches the Earth's surface it is called lava. When the lava cools, it forms rock.


Supervolcanoes
A Supervolcano is a volcano on a massive scale. It is different from a volcano because:
· It erupts at least 1,000 km3 of material (a large volcano erupts around 1 km3)
· It forms a depression, called a caldera (a volcano forms a cone shape)
· A Supervolcano often has a ridge of higher land around it
· A Supervolcano erupts less frequently - eruptions are hundreds of thousands of years apart
Yellowstone is one example of a Supervolcano. Three huge eruptions have happened in the last 3 million years. The last eruption was 630,000 years ago, and was 1,000 times bigger than the Mount St Helens eruption in 1980. The large volume of material from the last Yellowstone eruption caused the ground to collapse, creating a depression called a caldera. The caldera is 55 km by 80 km wide. The next eruption is predicted to have catastrophic worldwide effects. The Supervolcano at Yellowstone is formed because of a volcanic hotspot. Every year millions of visitors come to see the related features, such as geysers and hot springs. Old Faithful is one example of a geyser.

Living Near Volcanoes
Some advantages of living near volcanoes are that the volcanic soils are very fertile, there are valuable minerals like sulphur and borax, the hot water can be used for geothermal power, and there are many tourist attractions such as hot springs, craters and walking which create jobs. Some disadvantages are unpredictable dangerous eruptions, loss of life, roads blocked and lack of electricity, crops lost, disease, and fires.
Primary effects of volcanic eruptions:
· People injured or killed
· Disruption to public services, communication, transport and electricity
· Destruction of buildings, property and farmland
Secondary effects of volcanic eruptions:
· Shortages of food, shelter and drinking water
· Spread of disease from contaminated water
· Stress and family losses
· Economic problems from cost of rebuilding and losses to factories and tourism

Mount St Helens
The eruptions were caused by the Juan de Fuca plate, which is the oceanic plate, moving towards the American plate, which is the continental plate. The American Plate was forced downwards, and then earthquakes were produced, caused by the friction between the two plates rubbing against each other and caused an earthquake of magnitude 5 on the Richter scale. Because of this, the magma rose to the surface, and volcanic eruptions occurred on the 18th May 1980. All like within 25km was destroyed, and the ash spread so far the people had to wear masks 120km away.
Primary Effects:
· The hot ash and gas destroyed many things
· 63 people were killed
· Mudflows covered a large area
· Trees were flattened
Secondary Effects:
· Sediments blocked rivers, which then killed animals and plants
· Flooding destroyed bridges, roads, and telephone poles.
· Many crops were ruined
Immediate responses:
· People were given homes and shelters
· Roads and bridges were repaired
Long term responses:
· The volcano was monitored very carefully
· The forest was replanted

Earthquakes
An earthquake is the shaking and vibration of the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates (plate tectonics). Earthquakes can happen along any type of plate boundary. Earthquakes occur when tension is released from inside the crust. Plates do not always move smoothly alongside each other and sometimes get stuck. When this happens pressure builds up. When this pressure is eventually released, an earthquake tends to occur. The point inside the crust where the pressure is released is called the focus. The point on the Earth's surface above the focus is called the epicentre. Earthquake energy is released in seismic waves. These waves spread out from the focus. The waves are felt most strongly at the epicentre, becoming less strong as they travel further away. The most severe damage caused by an earthquake will happen close to the epicentre. The strength of earthquakes are measured on the Richter scale (0-10), and the effects of earthquakes are measured on the Mercalli scale (0-12)

There are three types of earthquake waves:
· Primary waves that arrive first and can travel through all of the earth’s layers in any direction. They vibrate to and fro in the direction of travel.
· Secondary waves that are transverse waves and so vibrate at right angles to the direction of travel, and bounce off the core into the mantle.
· Longitudinal waves that only travel through the crust and circle the world losing energy and doing the most damage of the three types.

Three parts of earthquakes are the foreshocks (warning tremors), the main shock (does the most damage but is short in duration) and the aftershocks (can be powerful and unpredictable, and are tremors as the earth settles down).
Effects of earthquakes are loss of life, buildings collapsed, fissures in the ground, broken water and sewage pipes resulting in typhoid and cholera, dams collapse and so floods can occur, and tidal waves can cause tsunamis to happen.





Tsunamis
On 26 December 2004 a tsunami occurred in the Indian Ocean. It was the result of the Indio-Australian Plate subducting below the Eurasian Plate. It was caused by an earthquake measuring more than magnitude 9. The earthquake caused the seafloor to uplift, displacing the seawater above. The tsunami travelled at speeds up to 800km per hour. When the Tsunami reached the shores, the height of the wave increased to 15 metres in some areas.
Impacts
A quarter of a million people died.
Two million people were made homeless.
People were swept away in the waters, which arrived rapidly and with little warning.
Thirteen countries were affected, the worst being Indonesia.
Indonesia was hit by the tsunami first. Forty-five minutes later the tsunami reached Thailand.
Mangrove swamps helped to act as a barrier to reduce the energy of the water in some areas.
Short-term aid, such as water purification tablets, temporary housing and medical supplies were given from international countries.
Islands reliant on tourism and fishing, such as the Maldives, had to rebuild their industries.
An early warning system between countries surrounding the Indian Ocean has been set up.
Bodies were buried in mass graves to prevent diseases spreading.

3
reply
Toy Soldiers
Badges: 18
Rep:
?
#6
Report 4 years ago
#6
(Original post by Pizzaa<3)
I made another thread, but everything I posted got kinda buried in comments, so please don't comment on here! If you want to say thanks give it a rep, and if you have any questions message me, just please please please don't post here Thanks people
It's a thread and not your personal revision board.
3
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#7
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#7
(Original post by Toy Soldiers)
It's a thread and not your personal revision board.
Sorry, but was that seriously necessary?
Just ignore it then if you don't want to see this...
But a) other people might want to see them, and b) I prefer the layout of this compared to creating the documents (as shawn_01 suggested)
0
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#8
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#8
Biology B2 - Cells, Organs, Tissues, Diffusion - AQA

Spoiler:
Show


Animal cells
· The nucleus - Controls the activities of the cell, and contains chromosomes/DNA
· The cytoplasm - A liquid gel in which chemical reactions take place
· The Cell Membrane – Controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell
· The Mitochondria – Where oxygen is used and energy is released in respiration
· The Ribosomes – Where protein synthesis takes place (all proteins needed by the cell are made, based on genetic information from the nucleus)
Plant cells
· The Cell Wall – made from cellulose for strength and support
· Chloroplasts – Found in the green parts of most plants, and contain chlorophyll to absorb light energy for photosynthesis
· The Permanent Vacuole – A space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap for rigidity / support

Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are much smaller than both plant and animal cells. Bacterial cells consist of a cytoplasm and plasmids (small circular sections of DNA to store extra material), surrounded by a cell wall and membrane. In bacteria, the genetic material is not stored in a distinct nucleus, and many types of bacterium have flagella (a long protein strand) for movement.

Yeast is a single-celled organism, with each cell containing a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall and membrane. Yeast cells are bigger than bacterium, but smaller than most other cells. They reproduce by asexual budding, and use oxygen to break down sugars and provide energy. When there is a lack of oxygen they can use anaerobic respiration, producing ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide, which is also called fermentation.

Specialised Cells
· Fat cells are used to store fat. They contain small amounts of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat, few mitochondria as the cell requires little energy, and they can expand massively.
· Cone cells from the eye allow us to see in colour, contain special visual pigments that change chemically in coloured light, and have specialised synapses connecting to the optic nerve.
· Root hair cells help plants take up water efficiently by having a large surface area and permanent vacuole so speed up osmosis from the soil into the cell.
· Sperm cells contain genetic information from the male parent, so middle section is full of mitochondria to provide energy, a large nucleus to store DNA, and a long tail for swimming.

B2 AQA – DIFFUSION

Dissolved substances can move in and out of cells by diffusion, which involves both providing cells with useful materials such as glucose and oxygen, as well as removing waste products and chemicals.
The definition of diffusion is ‘the net movement of particles down a concentration gradient’. The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out. Greater concentration gradients increase the rate of diffusion.
Examples of diffusion:
· Amino acids from the breakdown of proteins in the gut can pass through cell membranes
· Oxygen needed for respiration passes from the air into the lungs
The rate and ease of diffusion can also be increased by increasing the surface area of the cell membrane, meaning there is more room for diffusion to take place.


B2 AQA – TISSUES AND ORGANS

During the development of a multi-cellular organism cells differentiate to become specialised.
A tissue is a group of cells with a similar structure and function working together.
In animals:
· Muscular tissue contracts and extends for movement
· Glandular tissue contains secretory cells that produce enzymes and hormones
· Epithelial tissue (e.g. Skin) covers the outer body and the internal organs
In plants:
· Epithelial tissues cover and protect the surfaces
· Mesophyll tissues contain many chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis
· Xylem and Phloem tissues transport water and dissolved mineral ions around the plant

Organs are made up of tissues and most contain more than one type of tissue, for example the stomach. This contains muscular tissue to churn the food, glandular tissue to produce the digestive juices, and epithelial tissue to cover the organ.
Organ systems are groups or organs performing a particular function – e.g. the Digestive System
· The digestive system breaks down the large insoluble molecules in food
· It includes glands such as the pancreas and salivary glands making juices containing enzymes
· Enzymes break large insoluble molecules into smaller, soluble ones
· Small molecules are absorbed into the blood in the small intestine, with a large surface area
· In the large intestine excess water is absorbed to form faeces (poop ^-^)

Plants also have organs, including stems, roots and leaves.

The sequence for multicellular organisms is:
Organism → Organ Systems → Organs → Tissues → Cells


1
reply
Toy Soldiers
Badges: 18
Rep:
?
#9
Report 4 years ago
#9
(Original post by Pizzaa<3)
Sorry, but was that seriously necessary?
Just ignore it then if you don't want to see this...
But a) other people might want to see them, and b) I prefer the layout of this compared to creating the documents (as shawn_01 suggested)
Just saying..Commenting is inevitable, so there's not much point telling people to "don't comment" when surely it's going to happen. "Oh look! A comment - I might as well create another thread because this one's now messed up".
2
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#10
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#10
(Original post by Toy Soldiers)
Just saying..Commenting is inevitable, so there's not much point telling people to "don't comment" when surely it's going to happen. "Oh look! A comment - I might as well create another thread because this one's now messed up".
That's kinda hyperbolic...
And also I thought that there was no harm trying Yes, people might ignore what I said and comment, but I wanted to try and see if they would just not comment and use the notes... This thread isn't even relevant to you though :confused:
0
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#11
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#11
English Literature - Silas Marner Characters - IGCSE

Spoiler:
Show


Silas Marner Notes - Characters

Summary of Silas Marner:
Silas Marner is a weaver who was exiled from Lantern Yard after being betrayed by his close friend William Dane, who framed Silas in a theft of church money. Silas then moved to Raveloe, another religious village, where he lived alone for 16 years before the story continued.
Silas is obsessed with money and turns his back on Christianity as he feels God let him down in the drawing of the lots that decided his fate in Lantern Yard. The villagers are shocked and scared by his ability to cure Sally Oats with herbal remedies that his mother taught him when he was young. Silas becomes complacent and leaves his cottage door open when going to get twine, so Dunstan steals his money.
Silas goes to the Rainbow to report his loss, and after the men recover from thinking he is a ghost, they want to help him. This is a major turning point as Silas is asking for help from the community. They try to solve his mystery, but have multiple odd theories such as that the Peddler’s earrings made him suspicious.
Silas’s character has changed after his money was stolen, and he is now ‘withered and shrunken’. Silas welcomes Dolly into his house, where she advises and comforts him. He doesn’t want to celebrate Christmas as he no longer trusts Christianity and feels it has no value to him.
Then Eppie finds shelter in the warmth of Silas’ home whilst he is having a Cataleptic fit. After the shock of believing Eppie was his money, Silas taker her to the Red House where Godfrey is shocked to see his daughter in Silas’ arms, but he doesn’t want to take responsibility for her and Silas has already grown attached so wants to raise her.
Dolly visits Silas to give his some of Aaron’s old clothes, and the women in Raveloe see Silas differently now he has taken on a motherly role. Silas and Eppie are baptised together.
After 16 years Silas and Eppie live happily together. Aaron helps Eppie to build a garden and Eppie talks to Silas about marrying him; he conceals his sadness but Eppie reassures him that she doesn’t want her life to change.
Silas and Eppie are at home when Godfrey and Nancy appear, asking to retrieve Eppie and for her to live with them at the Red House. Silas lets Eppie make the choice, and she refuses Godfrey’s offer. Silas and Eppie return to lantern Yard, only to find that the church has gone and the area has been industrialised, Silas realised that Raveloe is now his home.
Eppie and Aaron are married and they live with Silas in his cottage. Godfrey doesn’t attend the service, and Eppie tells Silas that ’nobody could be happier than we are’.

Silas and Money

Throughout the book Silas’ relationship with gold varies. After the events in Lantern Yard he becomes obsessed with money as it is the only thing he has, but he refuses to spend it on anything apart from the necessities. When the money is stolen, he feels there is nowhere to go and that all is lost. However, when Eppie appears Silas learns the importance of love over wealth, and is rewarded at the end of the book when Eppie chooses Silas over Godfrey.

‘For twenty years, mysterious money had stood to him as the symbol of earthly good and the immediate object of toil’
Eliot shows here the Silas’ money has no real value, as it only stands as a ‘symbol of earthly good’ but doesn’t actually mean anything. The word ‘mysterious’ implies that there is something confusing about the money that Silas cannot figure out, so it is not improving his life as he hoped.

‘Formerly, his heart has been as a locked casket with its treasure inside; but now the casket was empty and the lock was broken’
Alongside referring to the act that Silas’ money has gone, this quote is about Silas’ trust that has been broken once again. Silas’ money was keeping him in a ‘locked casket’ which was stopping him from making relationships with others, but now the lock is broken he feels vulnerable and exposed. In the bible it says your treasure is where your heart is, which refers to something more important than money. However, for Silas, his only treasure is the gold he worked for.

‘Money not only grew, but it remained with him’
Silas doesn’t actually want money to become wealthy, but he is using it as a replacement for company. The money was always there and couldn’t leave him or change like his friends at Lantern Yard did. There is something comforting to him about his money.

‘The evening has no phantasm of delight to still the poor soul’s craving’
After Silas’ money has gone he feels extremely lost. The word ‘phantasm’ refers to the money which has no real value to Silas, but was an illusion to distract him from the fact he had no friends, Eliot shows sympathy for Silas by calling him a ‘poor soul’, and the audience feels sorry for him as we can see he has no idea what he is supposed to do with himself.

Silas Key Quotes

‘God will clear me: I know nothing about the knife being there.’ (Chapter 1)At the beginning of the novel, Silas was extremely trusting of his community and faith, believing God made all the decisions in life. This carries on through the book, when later he says ‘God gave her to me.’ (Chapter 19) This is the first time Silas relates his life to religion again, as he feels God gave Eppie to him as a gift.

Silas has ‘convulsive joy at finding his treasure again’ (Chapter 14) after Eppie escaped. Using ‘treasure’ contrasts Silas’ old life to his new one, and shows that Eppie has both physically and mentally replaced his money. Eliot emphasises that money was hindering him from being happy, but Eppie does not. Furthermore, Eppie helps Silas to move ‘continually onwards’.

‘His large, brown eyes seem to have gathered a longer vision.’ (Chapter 16)This is referencing Silas’ short-sightedness, but also the fact the he is more open minded now and has a wider vision of the world around him. The word ‘large’ sounds less intimidating that ‘protuberant’ which was used earlier on in the novel.

Silas tells Dolly: ‘the old homes gone; I’ve got no home but this now.’ This shows that Silas has finally accepted Raveloe as his community and that he understands the significant differences between Raveloe and Lantern Yard. It also shows that Silas trusts his community, which is a first.

Silas speaks ‘gaspingly’ (Chapter 6) to the men at the Rainbow inn when reporting the theft, and which dashes in between his words. This showed his panic and frustration at the situation his was in.

Silas’ work reduced his life to ‘the unquestioning activity of a spinning insect’ (Chapter 2). His life is often compared to nature as he spends all day weaving in a similar way to how a spider weaves a web. The word ‘unquestioning’ suggests that Silas’ life is boring, repetitive and unchanging.

Godfrey Cass

Godfrey is the oldest son of Squire Cass. He married an opium addict, Molly Farren, with whom he had a daughter. However, he had been courting Nancy Lammeter for over four years, but was trapped in this secret marriage. He didn’t own up to being Eppie’s father after Nancy died, but was able to marry Nancy. Godfrey confronted Eppie but was unable to take a fatherly role in her life.
Key Quotes

‘A fine, open-faced, good natured young man…’
‘His natural irresolution and moral cowardice’
‘Too full of the exasperation against himself and his lot’
‘Godfrey was too painfully preoccupied to feel a twinge of self-reproach at this undeserved praise’
‘A conflict of regret and joy’
‘For Mr Godfrey Cass, as everyone said in the village, did very kindly to the weaver’
‘His natural kindness’
‘I want to do my duty’

Both Eppie and Godfrey grow up without a mother. Both fathers spoil their children, but the squire does it because he has to, and Silas does it out of love – this is why Eppie never doubts Silas’ love for her. Eliot implies the difference in treatment of their fathers is why Godfrey has grown up weak-willed and cowardly, whilst Eppie possesses a strong sense of values. We also see Godfrey’s motherless upbringing has led to him acting childish and ‘longing for some discipline.’

Godfrey’s marriage to Molly and his handling of it displays his moral cowardice and guilt. Although he appears to be quite attractive, he is quite a passive and indecisive character that is not helped by his selfish nature. Godfrey only tells Nancy about his child and marriage after Dunstan is found in the stone pits, out of fear that the villagers may find out. He is not a bad character, but Eliot uses him to show the strong difference between Silas’ approach to fatherhood and his own. He has many faults, but also has a good (albeit weak) conscience that is often misled.

Eppie

Eppie is Silas’ adopted daughter, after the death of her mother, Molly Farren. She is also Godfrey Cass’ daughter. She helps to introduce Silas back into the Raveloe community, and reintroduces him to faith in God. She is commonly associated with imagery to do with Light, Gold, Nature, and Faith.

Contrasts between Eppie and Gold
Eppie:
‘Seeking and loving sunshine’
‘And stirring the hum of kindness in all eyes that looked on her’
‘Living sounds and living movements’
‘She developed a fine capacity for mischief’
Gold:
‘Which was hidden away from the daylight’ (Eppie is drawn to the light)
‘Was deaf to the song of bird’ (Eppie is often associated with images to do with nature)
‘Worshipped in close locked solitude’ (Eppie helped bring Silas out of solitude)

Key Quotes
‘Soft, warm curls’ – heavily contrasts Silas’ ‘cold, hard money’ and begins to show her positive impact on his life by replacing his money with more natural and good things.
‘Warm hearth, where there was a bright fire of logs and sticks’ – Eppie is drawn to the hearth, which is often used to represent family and home, which shows she will be a good influence.
‘There was love between him and the child that blent into one’ – blending is a very gentle action, helping to show the kind nature of their relationship.
‘Hair ripples as obstinately as a brooklet under the March breeze’ – Her hair was originally associated with gold and is not compared to nature, implying the change in Silas’ priorities.
‘Revulsion’ (towards Godfrey) – Shows how she feels to connection towards him at all, especially due to how he hurts and manipulates Silas’ feelings.
‘You’d cut us in two’ – shows how close her relationship is to Silas
‘A dash of gold on a lily’ – Whilst gold used to be Silas’ main concern, now it is only an unimportant dash. Lilies are also associated with purity and innocence.

Dolly Winthrop
Dolly plays an important role in the novel as she provides Silas with advice, guidance and support – from raising Eppie (Chapter 14) to helping Silas come to terms with his past at Lantern Yard (Chapter 16). Dolly chose to do what was morally right by trying to accept and understand Silas, especially after he opened up to her. Dolly is friends with Silas and becomes a motherly figure for Eppie.

Dunstan Cass
‘He seemed to enjoy his drink the more when other people went dry.’ (Chapter 3) Shows how selfish and uncaring he is to enjoy watching other people suffer. Dunstan is so cruel that even the dog is afraid of him. He is the other example of Squire Cass’ parenting gone wrong.

Priscilla Lammeter
When we first meet Priscilla, Nancy Lammeter’s sister, she is labelled as an ‘excellent housewife’, ‘cheerful-looking’ and ‘blowsy’. All these are good features, implying she is a competent young woman. She refers to herself as ‘ugly’ which is extremely harsh, but also shows that she in comfortable with herself and her appearance. Her goal is to make the people around her happier. Priscilla is a bit like a wealthier version of Dolly Winthrop, as she is also a hard worker.

Mr Lammeter
Nancy’s father is old fashioned and upright in his ways. He is also morally correct, and so is probably responsible for most of Nancy’s strict ideas about life. He can be contrasted to Squire Cass as he managed to bring Nancy up as a good person, without a woman in the house as well.

0
reply
Pizzaa<3
Badges: 8
Rep:
?
#12
Report Thread starter 4 years ago
#12
Topic's i'm gonna do before next Sunday ^-^

Spoiler:
Show


Biology - AQA
B1 - Keeping Healthy, Coordination and Control, Medicine and Drugs, Adaptation, Energy in Biomass, Variation/Evolution
B2 - Cells tissues organs, Organisms, Enzymes, Respiration, Inheritance, Old/New Species

B3 - Exchange of Materials, Transporting Materials, Constant Internal Conditions

Chemistry AQA
C1 - Fundamental Ideas, Rocks and Building Materials, Metals and Uses, Crude Oil and Fuels, Products From Oil, Plant Oils, Changing Planet
C2 - Structure and Bonding, Structure and Properties, Calculations, Rates and Energy, Salts and Electrolysis
C3 - Periodic Table, Water, Energy Calculations, Analysis and Synthesis, Organic Chemistry

Physics AQA
P1 - Energy Transfer by Heating, Using Energy, Electrical Energy, Generating Electricity, Waves, Electromagnetic Waves
P2 - Motion, Forces, Work Energy and Momentum, Current Electricity, Mains Electricity, Radioactivity, Energy from the Nucleus
P3 - Medica
l Physics, Physics to make things work, Magnetic Fields and Movement

Geography - AQA
Coasts, Changing Urban Environments, Population, Changing Earth, The Development Gap, Ice on the Land

History - AQA
Germany, Russia, USA, Cold War 1, Cold War 2, Answering Questions

Physical Education - Edexcel
Healthy active Lifestyle, Influences, Exercise and Fitness, Physical Activity, Personal Health and Well-being, Healthy Mind and Body, Cardiovascular System, Respiratory System, Muscular System, Skeletal System

Product Design - AQA
Design and Market Influences, Processes and Manufacture, Materials and Components, Design and Making Practice

English Literature - IGCSE
Silas Marner, Poetry Collection, The Merchant of Venice

Other subjects I study are German AQA, Maths Edexcel, Add Maths, and English Lang IGCSE, so feel free to ask me any questions about those...I'm not making notes on them as I don't feel it's necessary

0
reply
Lazy Cynic
Badges: 7
Rep:
?
#13
Report 4 years ago
#13
(Original post by Pizzaa<3)
Topic's i'm gonna do before next Sunday ^-^

Spoiler:
Show


Biology - AQA
B1 - Keeping Healthy, Coordination and Control, Medicine and Drugs, Adaptation, Energy in Biomass, Variation/Evolution
B2 - Cells tissues organs, Organisms, Enzymes, Respiration, Inheritance, Old/New Species

B3 - Exchange of Materials, Transporting Materials, Constant Internal Conditions

Chemistry AQA
C1 - Fundamental Ideas, Rocks and Building Materials, Metals and Uses, Crude Oil and Fuels, Products From Oil, Plant Oils, Changing Planet
C2 - Structure and Bonding, Structure and Properties, Calculations, Rates and Energy, Salts and Electrolysis
C3 - Periodic Table, Water, Energy Calculations, Analysis and Synthesis, Organic Chemistry

Physics AQA
P1 - Energy Transfer by Heating, Using Energy, Electrical Energy, Generating Electricity, Waves, Electromagnetic Waves
P2 - Motion, Forces, Work Energy and Momentum, Current Electricity, Mains Electricity, Radioactivity, Energy from the Nucleus
P3 - Medica
l Physics, Physics to make things work, Magnetic Fields and Movement

Geography - AQA
Coasts, Changing Urban Environments, Population, Changing Earth, The Development Gap, Ice on the Land

History - AQA
Germany, Russia, USA, Cold War 1, Cold War 2, Answering Questions

Physical Education - Edexcel
Healthy active Lifestyle, Influences, Exercise and Fitness, Physical Activity, Personal Health and Well-being, Healthy Mind and Body, Cardiovascular System, Respiratory System, Muscular System, Skeletal System

Product Design - AQA
Design and Market Influences, Processes and Manufacture, Materials and Components, Design and Making Practice

English Literature - IGCSE
Silas Marner, Poetry Collection, The Merchant of Venice

Other subjects I study are German AQA, Maths Edexcel, Add Maths, and English Lang IGCSE, so feel free to ask me any questions about those...I'm not making notes on them as I don't feel it's necessary

??? where are these?
0
reply
Xzerzes
Badges: 2
Rep:
?
#14
Report 4 years ago
#14
Nice notes! Have you got B3, C2 and C3 too?
0
reply
Lazy Cynic
Badges: 7
Rep:
?
#15
Report 4 years ago
#15
[QUOTE=Pizzaa

Hey where are our promises revision notes....


[SIZE=1]Posted from TSR Mobile[/SIZE]
0
reply
epicflyingcat
Badges: 12
Rep:
?
#16
Report 4 years ago
#16
(Original post by Pizzaa<3)
Biology B2 - Cells, Organs, Tissues, Diffusion - AQA

Spoiler:
Show


Animal cells
· The nucleus - Controls the activities of the cell, and contains chromosomes/DNA
· The cytoplasm - A liquid gel in which chemical reactions take place
· The Cell Membrane – Controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell
· The Mitochondria – Where oxygen is used and energy is released in respiration
· The Ribosomes – Where protein synthesis takes place (all proteins needed by the cell are made, based on genetic information from the nucleus)
Plant cells
· The Cell Wall – made from cellulose for strength and support
· Chloroplasts – Found in the green parts of most plants, and contain chlorophyll to absorb light energy for photosynthesis
· The Permanent Vacuole – A space in the cytoplasm filled with cell sap for rigidity / support

Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are much smaller than both plant and animal cells. Bacterial cells consist of a cytoplasm and plasmids (small circular sections of DNA to store extra material), surrounded by a cell wall and membrane. In bacteria, the genetic material is not stored in a distinct nucleus, and many types of bacterium have flagella (a long protein strand) for movement.

Yeast is a single-celled organism, with each cell containing a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall and membrane. Yeast cells are bigger than bacterium, but smaller than most other cells. They reproduce by asexual budding, and use oxygen to break down sugars and provide energy. When there is a lack of oxygen they can use anaerobic respiration, producing ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide, which is also called fermentation.

Specialised Cells
· Fat cells are used to store fat. They contain small amounts of cytoplasm and large amounts of fat, few mitochondria as the cell requires little energy, and they can expand massively.
· Cone cells from the eye allow us to see in colour, contain special visual pigments that change chemically in coloured light, and have specialised synapses connecting to the optic nerve.
· Root hair cells help plants take up water efficiently by having a large surface area and permanent vacuole so speed up osmosis from the soil into the cell.
· Sperm cells contain genetic information from the male parent, so middle section is full of mitochondria to provide energy, a large nucleus to store DNA, and a long tail for swimming.

B2 AQA – DIFFUSION

Dissolved substances can move in and out of cells by diffusion, which involves both providing cells with useful materials such as glucose and oxygen, as well as removing waste products and chemicals.
The definition of diffusion is ‘the net movement of particles down a concentration gradient’. The net movement = particles moving in – particles moving out. Greater concentration gradients increase the rate of diffusion.
Examples of diffusion:
· Amino acids from the breakdown of proteins in the gut can pass through cell membranes
· Oxygen needed for respiration passes from the air into the lungs
The rate and ease of diffusion can also be increased by increasing the surface area of the cell membrane, meaning there is more room for diffusion to take place.


B2 AQA – TISSUES AND ORGANS

During the development of a multi-cellular organism cells differentiate to become specialised.
A tissue is a group of cells with a similar structure and function working together.
In animals:
· Muscular tissue contracts and extends for movement
· Glandular tissue contains secretory cells that produce enzymes and hormones
· Epithelial tissue (e.g. Skin) covers the outer body and the internal organs
In plants:
· Epithelial tissues cover and protect the surfaces
· Mesophyll tissues contain many chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis
· Xylem and Phloem tissues transport water and dissolved mineral ions around the plant

Organs are made up of tissues and most contain more than one type of tissue, for example the stomach. This contains muscular tissue to churn the food, glandular tissue to produce the digestive juices, and epithelial tissue to cover the organ.
Organ systems are groups or organs performing a particular function – e.g. the Digestive System
· The digestive system breaks down the large insoluble molecules in food
· It includes glands such as the pancreas and salivary glands making juices containing enzymes
· Enzymes break large insoluble molecules into smaller, soluble ones
· Small molecules are absorbed into the blood in the small intestine, with a large surface area
· In the large intestine excess water is absorbed to form faeces (poop ^-^)

Plants also have organs, including stems, roots and leaves.

The sequence for multicellular organisms is:
Organism → Organ Systems → Organs → Tissues → Cells


Thank you!
0
reply
X

Quick Reply

Attached files
Write a reply...
Reply
new posts
Back
to top
Latest
My Feed

See more of what you like on
The Student Room

You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

Personalise

University open days

  • Cardiff Metropolitan University
    Undergraduate Open Day - Llandaff Campus Undergraduate
    Sat, 19 Oct '19
  • Coventry University
    Undergraduate Open Day Undergraduate
    Sat, 19 Oct '19
  • University of Birmingham
    Undergraduate Open Day Undergraduate
    Sat, 19 Oct '19

Why wouldn't you turn to teachers if you were being bullied?

They might tell my parents (18)
6.98%
They might tell the bully (26)
10.08%
I don't think they'd understand (42)
16.28%
It might lead to more bullying (93)
36.05%
There's nothing they could do (79)
30.62%

Watched Threads

View All