DEDA1997
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#21
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i just used goldthrope and saunders. But theres lots of different studies you can use
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rubyrubyruby1
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#22
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#22
ah thank you! im dreading the psychology exam because its a day before sociology :mad:
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DEDA1997
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#23
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Yeah i used the same studies and got full marks Also my teacher seems to think that gender will come up for crime and deviance as apparently its not come up since 2012...
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DEDA1997
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#24
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Ive got sociology and politics a day apart as well. I need 2Bs this year but I'm aiming for As
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rubyrubyruby1
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#25
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#25
is that the essay you sent that got full marks? Also see for gender essay what study and theory would you use except feminism?
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DEDA1997
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#26
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Yeah the essay i sent is full marks. Well for functionalism i used Otto Pollock and for individualism i used Howard becker. I didn't use feminism but if you have a harilambos book i think theres something in there for feminism
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rubyrubyruby1
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#27
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Becker is for Labeling right? Thank you! I need to start writing an essay for Gender now. Still hoping the question is statistics though.
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DEDA1997
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#28
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Yes thats correct. Ive been practicing the gender one for a while now as I've got a NAB on it tomorrow. Just need to get started on statistics.
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rubyrubyruby1
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#29
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can you send the gender essay? i didnt go in today so i haven't got my statistic essay back. ill get it back on wednesday.
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DEDA1997
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#30
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yeah sure. Ill type it out on my computer tomorrow. I've only got the written copy but typing it will be good practice
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rubyrubyruby1
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#31
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#31
Thank you! This essay will literally save me from failing sociology
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DEDA1997
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#32
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Hi sorry for late reply. Here is the essay pn gender and crime Btw is it okay if you send me the statistics essay, much appreciated.
Gender and crime
Crime can be more specifically defined than deviance. Crime is usually defined as an action which breaks the rules/law of society. Deviance is much harder to define. A deviant act is usually something which goes against cultural convention but isn't illegal. Its just behaviour which is looked down on in society, for example smoking. However not all deviant acts are considered bad. for example a scientist may use other scientists work to help him develop a theory of their own. Similar to what watson and crick did to conclude that DNA was a double helix. this sort of deviance allows scientific advancement which benefits society, as a result this deviance is positive. On the other hand murderers and rapists deviate not only from societies norms, but from its values too, in particular its value for human life. The third type of deviance are those who deviate from societies norms, for example hippies or hoarders, this type of deviance is usually accepted in society. What is considered deviant is not fixed in a particular time of place. Whats considered deviant now may not be considered deviant in a years time. For example smoking was once a common part of most peoples lives, now however smoking in public places is considered deviant. Deviance is therefore socially constructed. Crimes committed by those higher up the social ladder tend to go with lighter punishment whilst those lower down feel the full force of the law. For example the Bullingdon Club got away with vandalism and many other petty crimes and have gone on to live very successful lives. compare that to the london rioters who a great deal of them received prison sentences. Hidden figures of crime account for a very large amount of crime. Unreported crimes such as domestic crimes usually slip under the radar regularly because the victim may fear the repercussions. Before the 1970s criminologists generally ignored women in their studies. Feminists criticised these criminologists highly for failing to account for half the population. Statistically the is the most common crime in the UK. According to 2010 statistics men carried out 73% of these crimes. Out of 384 people sentenced to prison only 20 were women. As a result statistics shows men account for the majority of crime.


Functionalism is a consensus theory which believes in unity and sees society as an organic structure. Functionalist analysis looks for the source of deviance in the nature of society. If the goals of members in society aren't achieved then conflict will arise. Functionalists believe in various social control systems such as the courts and the police in order to keep deviance at bay. Too much deviance is harmful to society however Durkheim believed that a certain amount can actually be beneficial. Durkheim thought even in a society of saints true conformity was impossible. Deviance can help keep the rest of societies members in check. Criminals are made examples of and as a result we don't want to be like them. We fear hobbes state of nature and as a result conform to the system. Too much crime in society however creates anime, a state or namelessness where anything goes. Merton believes this is what has happened with the American dream. Functionalist theory is seen as strong at providing a macro image of society however its been criticised for its use of unreliable statistics.Functioonalsim has also been criticised for saying that deviance has a function in society and can be beneficial.


Otto Pollock (1950) argued that statistics on gender and crime were completely wromg. He claimed that statistics greatly underestimate women involved in crime. He believed that women only crime existed such as abortion and prostitution. He believed that women were naturally good liars -there ability to fake orgasm- he believed this helped them get out of trouble. He also stated that the male dominated authorities were likely to go more gently on women because of the western culture to be kind to women and respect them. He believed that nearly all shop lifting offences were carried out by women and also that women domestic cleaners committed a lot of theft (he had no evidence for this). He also claimed that the motherly figure of women in the house hold meant that they could probably get away with sexually abusing their children and poisoning guests. Pollock was hugely criticised from people in all blocks of life, especially feminists. Feminists belived his work to be deeply sexist and rooted in the past. He had no evidence to support his claims. However he was correct that statistics aren't accurate.


Interactionalsim is considered to be the bridge between action and structuralist theories. It examines society as a whole and also on a micro level with individuals. Interactionalists focus on the social construction of crime and deviance and reject the notion that theres types of conduct that are inherently deviant. Interactionalists ask why certain groups are more involved in crime than others. Labelling is considered to be the primary perspective behind interactionalism. For example a child may steal a toy from his friends house and as a result get labeled childish by his parents and friends family. However if he was in a poor neighbourhood he would get labeled as being in the early stages of criminality. As a result he would slowly conform to his label. The girls involved in sexual abuse in rotherham were labeled as life style choices, as a result of being in a poorer area.


Howard Becker (1963) is a strong beliver of labelling theory. He believes that deviant identities are produced through the labelling processes rather than deviant motivators. Theres no such thing as an inherently deviant act. The bullingdon club (which david cameron and Boris were both members of) were labeled as deviant yet went on and lived very successful lives. The london rioters were all from poorer backgrounds and were labeled deviant and given criminal records and sent to prison. As a result the higher up the social ladder you are you're more likely to get away with deviant acts.
Howard Becker was seen as a strong at explaining primary deviance. Also seen as strong at explaining the complex nature of deviance. However he was criticised for inadequately explaining variations in deviant behaviour. He was also criticised for believing that everyone in society starts of with the same goals in life.


In conclusion crime studies in the past used to approach the issue as a male working class issue. Studies on gender and crime have shown that crime is mostly committed by men however statistics give a much exaggerated picture and don't include the “hidden figures of crime”.
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rubyrubyruby1
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#33
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Thank you My lecturer didn't mark it and i haven't gotten it back. So i'm typing another essay up the now. Ill send it on this once im finished
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DEDA1997
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#34
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Okay thank you very much
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DEDA1997
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#35
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So what are the predictions for this year again? social class and gender and crime/crime statistics
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rubyrubyruby1
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#36
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#36
social closure since it hasn't come up in years
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DEDA1997
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#37
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has your teacher marked your essay yet?
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rubyrubyruby1
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#38
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#38
sorry totally forgot. I just ended up handwriting it up.

Intro

definition of crime and deviance
biological factors (lombroso)
relative concept
changes- in homosexuality etc
stats are not reliable.
they are patchy- record only reported crime.

theory 1- marxism

general key features of marxism
talk about white collar crimes etc
research- snider
dont believe in stats- fabricate stats to suit own purpose. police being selective.
believe 42% stats are false and misleading

theory 2- functionalism

general key features of functionalism
crime and deviance is functional and dysfunctional
anomie
reseearch is merton
see crime stats as reliable- come from scientific approach as they are collected from police and BCS

Study to support Marxism

S Box (1981)
analyse stats on class basis
sees them as distorted in support of ruling class

Study to support Functionalism

British Crime Survey

annually produced
attempts to measue unreported aswell as repotred crime
good at detecting trends



sorry i had to type this up in bullet points. you just have to elaborate more on those points. if you find a better study on functionalism can you please let me know?
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lunamorrissey
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#39
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does anyone know what the key features/strengths/weaknesses are for the Weberian theory?? can't find any good detailed answers anywhere? thanks
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rubyrubyruby1
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#40
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(Original post by DEDA1997)
has your teacher marked your essay yet?
See for your gender essay what mark did you get?
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