(Original post by megakhadkax)
the things that i know right now are that they form enzymes which neutralises the acid but can someone further explain this because i dont understand how this would be useful for the bacteria?
also whilst doing a past paper i came across a question that said if we add a digestive protein enzyme it stops it from causing cell damage. How does that happen??? Please can someone help thank you.
Have you learnt about optimum living conditions for organisms - things like the optimum temperature, pH, humidity, etc.?
Enzymes also have an optimum temperature and pH, at which they are at their most efficient. This is usually around 37o
C and on average, around about pH 7. If you deviate from these points too much, it can cause the enzyme to either become less active, or denature completely.
In the stomach, the pH is usually around 1-2, which is very acidic for most enzymes. This can cause enzymes to become denatured, as the acidity affects the ionisation of individual amino acids within an enzyme (enzymes are proteins, which are made up of amino acids), which affects their tertiary structure, causing the active site of the enzyme to change shape. This means that the substrate cannot bind as effectively, meaning that the reaction will not be carried out very efficiently.
Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that have many different enzymes that are required for various functions - if you denature a lot of these, the bacteria will die, because basic functions like cellular respiration might not take place very efficiently. The same is true if the temperature deviates significantly from the optimum temperature.
Hope this helps!