JennyBing
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Hi everyone!

I would appreciate assistance in answering the unanswered questions correctly in the following question set. Also, I would be grateful if I can receive feedback on the questions that I did answer, so tell me if they correct or incorrect. Thanks!

1. A set of photos of married couples are rated (on a validated scale, with equal intervals) for physical attractiveness by a panel of judges, who are not told which people are married to each other. The question addressed here is that couples tend to be at a similar level of attractiveness. What test would be appropriate here?
a) Spearmans
b) Unrelated t-test
c) Chi-Square
d) Pearsons

I think it might be Pearsons, but I don't know.

Questions 2-5 each concern the following practical: In a randomised trial, 60 early stage Alzheimer’s patients were given either a highly purified fish-oil supplement (n=20) or a placebo (n=20) or the new Alzheimer’s Drug ‘Memoreeze’ (n=20). After three months they were given a battery of standardised memory tests.

2. In this experiment, how many IV’s are there?
a) 3
b) 1
c) 20
d) 60

3. In this experiment, ‘fish oil’ is:
a) The IV
b) The DV
c) A condition
d) A sample

4. This experiment is:
a) Repeat Measures
b) Independent Groups
c) Matched Groups
d) Chi Square

5. The best statistical analysis to do here is:
a) Within participants ANOVA – no post-hoc test is required
b) Within participants ANOVA plus a post-hoc test
c) Between participants ANOVA – no post-hoc test is required
d) Between participants ANOVA plus a post-hoc test

Not sure if a post-hoc test is required or not.

6. You hypothesise that the more drink that has been consumed by a theatre audience (as measured by quantity of alcohol per head sold in the interval bar), the more highly they will rate the play (as measured on a 7 point Likert Scale). You measure each of these things at 15 London theatres on a single night. The correct test for your hypothesis is:
a) A Chi Square.
b) An ANOVA.
c) A Pearsons.
d) A Spearman’s.

7. You hypothesise that the more drink that has been consumed by a theatre audience (as measured by quantity of alcohol per head sold in the interval bar), the more wildly they will applaud the end of the play (as measured by a noise-meter). You measure each of these things at 15 London theatres on a single night. The correct test for your hypothesis is:
a) A Chi Square.
b) An ANOVA.
c) A Pearsons.
d) A Spearman’s.

I would answer c) for questions 6 and 7, but I am not certain.

Questions 8 & 9 each concern the following practical: You believe men and women will tend to perform differently according to whether they have a job interview with a person of the same or different gender. London Transport allows you to examine all its personnel files for the previous year to see candidate’s gender, interviewer’s gender, and whether the candidate was offered the job.

8. What is the design here?
a) Repeat Measures
b) Independent Groups
c) Matched Groups
d) Non-experimental survey) based design

9. Which of the following is most likely to be the correct statistical test to use?
a) An ANOVA
b) Chi Square.
c) Mann-Whitney U test.
d) An unrelated t-test.

10. How should the researcher approach the IPA analysis?
a) Completely objectively and impersonally
b) With pre-formed expectations about what the study will show
c) By just letting the data speak for itself
d) By interpreting what the participants have said

11. Which of the following is an OPEN question, suitable for use in a semi-structured interview?
a) Do you drink alcohol?
b) How positive is your attitude towards alcohol, points out of 10?
c) What are your feelings about alcohol?
d) Do you think there should be more laws regulating consumption of alcohol?

12. The Rorschach test involved participants being shown a symmetrical ink blot and asked what they could see in it. Their responses (‘mother’, ‘a knife’, etc) were assessed by a psychiatrist. The Rorschach used to be used to test for psychoticism but was abandoned; both because different psychiatrists gave completely different results for the same participant and also because it appeared not to be measuring anything we would regard as psychoticism at all. The Rorschach test was abandoned because it was:

a) Unreliable
b) Invalid
c) Unreliable and invalid
d) Subject to sampling error

Questions 13 & 14 each concern the following practical: An IQ test was administered to all students on admission to the Californian University system. This IQ score was then correlated with each student’s ‘grade point average’ (‘GPA’ - the US version of our degree grade – an average of all the student’s grades throughout their degree studies). The correlation between the two scores was r=0.862 (p<0.001).

13. We can say this IQ test has good:
a) Inter-rater reliability
b) Internal validity
c) Test-retest reliability
d) Predictive validity

14. What can we conclude from this practical?
a) GPA depends on intelligence
b) GPA is an invalid measure of intelligence
c) Intelligence predicts GPA
d) both a) and c)

15. Researchers construct a 12 item ‘Attitudes to drugs’ questionnaire, with each item scored on a 9 point Likert scale (Strongly agree to strongly disagree). This is one of the items: “I think that drug users are more likely to be criminals and be HIV positive”
What is WRONG with this item?
a) It is judgemental rather than factual
b) It is not reverse-scored
c) It concerns behaviours rather than attitudes
d) It is a double-barrelled item

16. ‘Informed consent’ means that:
a) Participants must always know the research question.
b) Participants must never be deceived about any element of the research.
c) Participants must always give their signature to indicate consent.
d) None of the above.

17. Researchers wished to replicate with a larger group of orphans the ‘little Albert’ study of Watson & Raynor (1923) – in which an orphan child of 13 months was experimentally given a phobia. You inform these researchers the BPS code is likely to prohibit this research on the grounds that:
a) Consent by the participant is required for this kind of research and the infants cannot give their consent
b) In loco parentis consent would be needed for this kind of research, and as these are orphans, there can be no such consent
c) There is too great a risk of harm to the participants
d) All of the above

18. You wish to replicate Milgram’s work on obedience - in which a stooge is used to deceive participants into believing they have killed a participant with electric shocks. You are informed that the BPS code is likely to prohibit this research on the grounds that:
a) It has been done already
b) There is too great a risk of harm to the participants
c) Both of the above
d) None of the above

19. If we were to add 12 points to each item of raw data in a data set, what effect would this have on the range?
a) It would increase it by 12
b) It would stay the same
c) It would depend on the data set in question
d) Not enough information to decide

Questions 20-24 each concern the following practical: A researcher wanted to know whether Visio-spatial task performance was affected by time of day. A group of participants completed one Visio-spatial test battery (test battery A) in the morning and then completed another Visio-spatial test battery (test battery B) in the afternoon. Both test batteries were well-normed and widely used – having been adapted from published IQ tests.

20. What is the IV here?
a) Test A vs Test B
b) Time of day
c) Visio-Spatial Task Performance
d) There is no IV as this is not a true experiment

21. What is the design here?
a) Independent Groups
b) Repeat Measures (no counterbalancing)
c) Repeat Measures (with counterbalancing)
d) Matched Groups

22. What statistical test would you perform to test the hypothesis?
a) Related T test
b) Unrelated T test
c) Mann-Whitney U test
d) Wilcoxon Test

23. What major problem/s exist with this practical as it is described?
a) Uncontrolled (confounding) order effects for Time of Day
b) Individual differences
c) Both of a) and b)
d) None of the above

24. How could you best control the extraneous (confounding) variable/s in this practical?
a) Do it as an Independent Groups design
b) Do it as a Repeat Measures (with counterbalancing) design
c) Ask all participants to do test battery A only.
d) None of the above

Thank you very much!
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Nikita Verma
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Hi! I'm preparing for CIE AS psychology exam and I don't have all of this in my syllabus but here are a few answers I'm sure of:

I think yours answers 2,3,4,11 and 12 are correct.

8. I think the answer should be option D as it is not an experiment so the experimenter/ researcher has no control over variables for it to be any other design. They are simply going through data on events that have already happened and are investigating any possible relation between gender of the interviewer and performance.

13. It should definitely be internal validity (b). When in doubt, you can try using the elimination method. There is no inter-rater reliability as there are no separate coders. There is no test-retest reliability as this experiment has not been replicated. Lastly, there is no predictive validity as the IQ test has not been compared to previously conducted IQ tests on these subjects. This leaves internal validity which makes sense as there is a strong correlation between the IQ scores and the GPAs.

14. I think it should be option A as GPA most certainly depends on intelligence as shown. Option D is tempting and slightly confusing but had option C also been correct, the correlation would have been stronger as it is not necessary that an intelligent student will have a high GPA.

15. I think it should be option D. I'm not quite sure what "double-barrelled" means but if it means that there are two outcomes i.e. HIV positive AND criminals, I may believe that drug users are criminals but that does not necessarily mean that I believe they will be HIV positive and so this forces me to choose, which is why it is wrong.

16. Informed consent means that a person had agreed to participate in psychological research and is well aware of the consequences. However, in studies so far, despite having given informed consent, the subjects were deceived in one way or another. So I think option C could be correct but it may also be option D.

17. I think the answer should be option D as all the above statements are regarding suitable ethical guidelines.

18. The answer should be B as option A is not very valid since studies are replicated over time to check their reliability. Also the BPS is most likely to prohibit research that breaks "ethical" guidelines.

I think answers 20 and 21 are correct.
However, I feel answer 23 should be option A. Since it is a repeated measures design, the same group of participants are used for both tests. Therefore, any individual differences are accounted for as the same person is doing both tests. Had it been independent measures, there could be individual differences as different people are used for each test. Of course, the groups could be matched (matched pairs/groups design) but that would dependent on the ability of the experimenter to "match" people.
Which leads me to think that for question 24, the answer should be B as counterbalancing would eliminate the order effects.

Sorry if I'm wrong about anything. :P This is a really good set of questions.
Hope you find this helpful.
Good luck!
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JennyBing
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(Original post by Nikita Verma)
Hi! I'm preparing for CIE AS psychology exam and I don't have all of this in my syllabus but here are a few answers I'm sure of:

I think yours answers 2,3,4,11 and 12 are correct.

8. I think the answer should be option D as it is not an experiment so the experimenter/ researcher has no control over variables for it to be any other design. They are simply going through data on events that have already happened and are investigating any possible relation between gender of the interviewer and performance.

13. It should definitely be internal validity (b). When in doubt, you can try using the elimination method. There is no inter-rater reliability as there are no separate coders. There is no test-retest reliability as this experiment has not been replicated. Lastly, there is no predictive validity as the IQ test has not been compared to previously conducted IQ tests on these subjects. This leaves internal validity which makes sense as there is a strong correlation between the IQ scores and the GPAs.

14. I think it should be option A as GPA most certainly depends on intelligence as shown. Option D is tempting and slightly confusing but had option C also been correct, the correlation would have been stronger as it is not necessary that an intelligent student will have a high GPA.

15. I think it should be option D. I'm not quite sure what "double-barrelled" means but if it means that there are two outcomes i.e. HIV positive AND criminals, I may believe that drug users are criminals but that does not necessarily mean that I believe they will be HIV positive and so this forces me to choose, which is why it is wrong.

16. Informed consent means that a person had agreed to participate in psychological research and is well aware of the consequences. However, in studies so far, despite having given informed consent, the subjects were deceived in one way or another. So I think option C could be correct but it may also be option D.

17. I think the answer should be option D as all the above statements are regarding suitable ethical guidelines.

18. The answer should be B as option A is not very valid since studies are replicated over time to check their reliability. Also the BPS is most likely to prohibit research that breaks "ethical" guidelines.

I think answers 20 and 21 are correct.
However, I feel answer 23 should be option A. Since it is a repeated measures design, the same group of participants are used for both tests. Therefore, any individual differences are accounted for as the same person is doing both tests. Had it been independent measures, there could be individual differences as different people are used for each test. Of course, the groups could be matched (matched pairs/groups design) but that would dependent on the ability of the experimenter to "match" people.
Which leads me to think that for question 24, the answer should be B as counterbalancing would eliminate the order effects.

Sorry if I'm wrong about anything. :P This is a really good set of questions.
Hope you find this helpful.
Good luck!
Thank you for your help, I really appreciate it. I think you're right about everything you said.
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Nikita Verma
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(Original post by JennyBing)
Thank you for your help, I really appreciate it. I think you're right about everything you said.
You're welcome!
I'm glad you think so because my AS psychology paper is in less than 24 hours....so it would be a bit scary if I had no clue about any of this, right?
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JennyBing
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(Original post by Nikita Verma)
You're welcome!
I'm glad you think so because my AS psychology paper is in less than 24 hours....so it would be a bit scary if I had no clue about any of this, right?
Yeah, it would be worrying if you didn't know about research methods but I'm sure you'll smash the paper.

Does your AS paper include multiple choice questions, short essay questions, and long essay questions?

Good luck!
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Nikita Verma
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Yeah, it would be worrying if you didn't know about research methods but I'm sure you'll smash the paper.

Does your AS paper include multiple choice questions, short essay questions, and long essay questions?

Good luck!
Thank you! My paper went well.
No, I don't have MCQs. I have 2 papers. The first one includes short questions of 2-4 marks on 15 out of 20 core studies we're supposed to learn about and then 2 long answers of 10 marks each based on themes and methods relating to the studies. The second paper has all long and short essay questions related to themes and redesigning studies. Phew!

P.S. While studying yesterday I cam across a point relating to the question on GPA and IQ that you posted above... it says that correlation is a useful way to analyse statistics and allows you to measure the affect of variables on one another i.e. how strongly they are related or inversely related. However, correlation does not help identify cause and effect as we cannot predict if one variable causes the other simply based on how strong their correlation is. So looking back at the GPA question...I suppose we can't say that high IQ will cause a higher GPA and vice versa. I just thought this point might help...very tricky subtle difference
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JennyBing
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(Original post by Nikita Verma)
Thank you! My paper went well.
No, I don't have MCQs. I have 2 papers. The first one includes short questions of 2-4 marks on 15 out of 20 core studies we're supposed to learn about and then 2 long answers of 10 marks each based on themes and methods relating to the studies. The second paper has all long and short essay questions related to themes and redesigning studies. Phew!

P.S. While studying yesterday I cam across a point relating to the question on GPA and IQ that you posted above... it says that correlation is a useful way to analyse statistics and allows you to measure the affect of variables on one another i.e. how strongly they are related or inversely related. However, correlation does not help identify cause and effect as we cannot predict if one variable causes the other simply based on how strong their correlation is. So looking back at the GPA question...I suppose we can't say that high IQ will cause a higher GPA and vice versa. I just thought this point might help...very tricky subtle difference
You're welcome. That's good to hear. I am sure you did well. That's interesting, your syllabus is much different to the one I did during A-Levels.

Everything you said about correlations is true, and yes it makes it more difficult to answer that question. Thanks for pointing this out.

By the way, do you plan to take Psychology at Uni or aspire to work in a field related to the subject?
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Margo7
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About 12 question - not all Rorschach test are unreliable and invalid - try this made by russian psyhologist rorschach-inkblot-test.com
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Veritaz
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29. You hypothesise that the more drink that has been consumed by a theatre audience (as measured by quantity of alcohol per head sold in the interval bar), the more wildly they will applaud the end of the play (as measured by a noise-meter). You measure each of these things at 15 London theatres on a single night. The correct test for your hypothesis is:
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