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    what is initial rate of reaction like i know the meaning but where is it in the spec.? is it in enzymes chapter>
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    (Original post by A84)
    i think it means that if glucose was in the solution, then it will cause osmosis to occur past the membrane... i think ur talking bout the amobea question in past papers right?
    in what year was the ameoba q?
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    (Original post by sara_ara98)
    in what year was the ameoba q?
    q2 jan 2012 -- oh and my bad, srry, it has nothing to do with osmosis or osmotic effect!!! i was just writing down marking schemes, so i guess it was just in my head while i was posting earlier.

    anyways, the initial rate of reaction is related to the core practical 4 of our syllabus
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    whats somatic gene therapy?
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    (Original post by 99k)
    whats somatic gene therapy?
    Somatic gene therapy is when body cells are used. It replaces the faulty gene in a person with the correct one. Only the cells that are targeted will be changed - so any changes made will not be passed on to offspring.


    Gene Therapy
    1) DNA strand in human chromosome cut out using restriction enzymes (plasmid is cut with the same restriction enzyme)

    2) Join plasmid with the isolated DNA strand(or gene) using DNA ligase enzyme -> is then injected into the persons targeted area/cells

    3) Recombinant DNA forms once vector gets into host nucleus and combines with cell's DNA

    4) modified bacterium will now produce a different protein as new gene is expressed causing the synthesis of protein.
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    Can anyone tell me about the vector thing in gene therapy didn understand about this...
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    (Original post by Kai.llama)
    Can anyone tell me about the vector thing in gene therapy didn understand about this...
    Vector is basically what transports the healthy gene to the targeted cells/area in the body it is injected into. Examples of vectors commonly used would be plasmids and viruses.


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    Do we say like the recombinant DNA is inserted to vector then injected to targeted cells?

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    (Original post by ~xSarahx~)
    Vector is basically what transports the healthy gene to the targeted cells/area in the body it is injected into. Examples of vectors commonly used would be plasmids and viruses.


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    Could you explain to me the details about use viruses?? Thank!!!
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    Guys, I'm resisting this paper because I got a B but I feel like getting a B, is there anything I can do?

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    are the R papers usually harder than the others??
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    (Original post by PlayerBB)
    Do we say like the recombinant DNA is inserted to vector then injected to targeted cells?

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    From what I'm reading in my textbook, recombinant DNA is formed when a vector and the healthy gene are 'glued' together using DNA ligase. But then it also says somewhere else that it is only once the plasmid gets into the host nucleus that a recombinant DNA is formed as it combines with the cell's DNA....so now I'm confused


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    (Original post by ~xSarahx~)
    Recombinant DNA is only formed once the healthy DNA/gene inside the vector is transported to the host nucleus of the targeted cells - the vector containing the healthy gene will join with the DNA in the host nucleus to form a new DNA (recombinant DNA) which will code for the correct protein.


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    Ohh! Thanks 👍👍

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    (Original post by ~xSarahx~)
    Thread for anyone doing AS Biology IAL! Unit 1: 21st of May/ Unit 2: 1st of June

    How are you guys feeling about Unit 1? Guesses on what experiment may turn up?
    enzyme might come up coz i haven't been came up since last three years
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    (Original post by vaishpatel164)
    enzyme might come up coz i haven't been came up since last three years
    hopefully we get easy questions but somehow a low grade boundary too
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    Yeah, I'm so scared tbh

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    Could someone please explain to me how you could find the time of cardiac cycle?
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    (Original post by Adorable98)
    Could someone please explain to me how you could find the time of cardiac cycle?
    You count the time needed for the cardiac cycle to start and finish then 60/time

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    (Original post by PlayerBB)
    You count the time needed for the cardiac cycle to start and finish then 60/time

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    Where do I start counting? from 0?
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    And also, could some please explain to me how to draw a monohybrid cross... it's SOOO confusing!! Will I get marks if I draw a Punnett Square instead in the exam?
 
 
 
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