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    (Original post by amforsyth)
    Did the exam last year and got an A.
    The best advice:
    - TIMINGS: keep and eye on the time and plan how long to spend on each question/section - do not go over AT ALL, you will regret it.
    - Don't worry too much about specific facts for case studies, to be honest you can make up statistics and facts as long as they sound relatively right, almost every time the examiners have no way to disprove you.

    Good luck!
    (p.s. it's like 1000000x harder at A2!)
    I find A2 easier because you don't need to memorise quite so much, although the exams and timings are harder because its all essay based
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    (Original post by Lpfuller)
    Albedo is the amount of solar radiation reflected by the Earths surfaces. snow and ice reflect most and dark surfaces reflect least
    Oceans are dark surfaces so absorb more energy, this increases the temperatures of the sea levels which causes more ice to be melted. As a result this ice is now a dark surface as it is in the ocean.
    This causes a cycle called the positive ice albedo feedback
    Increased sea level temperatures cause thermal expansion and eustatic change.
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    (Original post by Patrick2810)
    What are some specific effects on the ecology of the arctic due to CC




    thanks
    Tree line moves further north, migratory birds move further north, the biodiversity changes, food webs change, some species may become extinct if they cannot keep/adapt up with the changes etc
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    What kind of fish do seals eat??
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    (Original post by itsConnor_)
    What kind of fish do seals eat??
    sand eel, cod, herring and flatfish however they will also eat crustaceans (crabs and shrimps etc) and molluscs (mainly squid and octopus)
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    Can anyone assist on post colonial and post ascension migration. Just need clarification. Thanks
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    (Original post by grammar12)
    sand eel, cod, herring and flatfish however they will also eat crustaceans (crabs and shrimps etc) and molluscs (mainly squid and octopus)
    Thanks
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    (Original post by grammar12)
    I find A2 easier because you don't need to memorise quite so much, although the exams and timings are harder because its all essay based
    Good for you.
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    (Original post by WurfWurf)
    Can anyone assist on post colonial and post ascension migration. Just need clarification. Thanks
    Bump, this is one section I'm confused on too
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    can someone help me out on how to answer 10 and 15 mark questions
    is there any structure im lost?
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    (Original post by WurfWurf)
    Can anyone assist on post colonial and post ascension migration. Just need clarification. Thanks
    post colonial i got - bangladeshi, pakistani, west indians and gujarati indians migration to uk for work in textile mills, london transport and nhs.

    post accession - A8 countries entering uk after access to eu granted in 2004. conflict in Boston could extend this case study. pros and cons of migration for host and source.
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    (Original post by grammar12)
    sand eel, cod, herring and flatfish however they will also eat crustaceans (crabs and shrimps etc) and molluscs (mainly squid and octopus)
    So if it asks about impacts of global warming for Arctic areas we can talk about more UV rays due to Milankovitch cycles even thought this is a process that changes every 100,000 years (not really about present day climate change) leading to death of phytoplankton, food web modifications, etc. ? Is it only Milankovitch cycles that affects phytoplankton/marine food webs?

    Also if arctic char and lake trout are fresh water fish and phyoplankton are marine fish, what exactly is the distinct difference?
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    (Original post by Wahduhhell)
    can someone help me out on how to answer 10 and 15 mark questions
    is there any structure im lost?
    I would do a very brief introduction addressing the question, then two paragraphs for a 10-mark or three paragraphs for a 15-mark and then a concluding paragraph. A conclusion is especially important for 15-mark questions.

    I would definitely suggest a brief plan before you start writing.
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    (Original post by itsConnor_)
    I would do a very brief introduction addressing the question, then two paragraphs for a 10-mark or three paragraphs for a 15-mark and then a concluding paragraph. A conclusion is especially important for 15-mark questions.

    I would definitely suggest a brief plan before you start writing.
    Thanks a lot
    Im also stuck on notes on africa and the arctic any key points?
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    (Original post by itsConnor_)
    So if it asks about impacts of global warming for Arctic areas we can talk about more UV rays due to Milankovitch cycles even thought this is a process that changes every 100,000 years (not really about present day climate change) leading to death of phytoplankton, food web modifications, etc. ? Is it only Milankovitch cycles that affects phytoplankton/marine food webs?

    Also if arctic char and lake trout are fresh water fish and phyoplankton are marine fish, what exactly is the distinct difference?
    As I explained in my previous answer, the tilt of the earth also affects the amount of UV reaching the oceans, the destruction of the ozone layer also does this, as well as increased output from the sun during solar cycles etc

    EDIT: For freshwater fish, it can also affect fish eggs, larvae and micro algae that the fish feed on
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    I CANNOT WAIT TO FLIPPING DROP THIS SUBJECT BY CHAINING IT TO AN ANCHOR AND DROPPING IT INTO THE PACIFIC OCEAN.

    I hate Geography so much it's unreal. Is it weird that I still want to try and get 100% UMS? XD
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    (Original post by grammar12)
    As I explained in my previous answer, the tilt of the earth also affects the amount of UV reaching the oceans, the destruction of the ozone layer also does this, as well as increased output from the sun during solar cycles etc
    But is axial tilt/wobble not part of Milankovitch cycles occuring in 41 000 and 21 000 cycles? Just making sure I would be staying focused on the question if I started talking about this in relation to climate change effecting ecology in the Arctic. Also sunspots means more UV radiation? Terribly sorry for pestering you, you seem to know your stuff!
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    (Original post by Wahduhhell)
    Thanks a lot
    Im also stuck on notes on africa and the arctic any key points?
    My quick notes on Africa (someone please correct me/suggest other points):
    · Economic impacts: agriculture, raw material processing, tourist sector activities; impacts can be experienced at subsistence level or for big business / TNCs; and possible expense for governments (e.g. fighting disease or helping refugees).
    · There are adaptation costs too e.g. higher sea levels, flood / drought incidence, changed malaria distribution, etc.
    o Kenya affected by more flooding due to eustatic sea-level rise, also coral bleaching affecting Kenya’s tourism industry
    o Increased costs of drinking water due to salinization/salt water incursion
    o Infrastructure losses (e.g. coastal roads, port, railways, airport)
    o Much of the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Central African Republic (landlocked) affected by increased drought as a result of rising global temperatures, water supplies reduced (resevoirs), cannot afford to invest in irrigation. Affects subsistence farmers and agribusiness investment.
    o Lack of jobs, etc. leads to migration / refugees (e.g. DRC to Sudan)
    o Drought leads to over-grazing and desertification (e.g. in the Sahel)
    South African investment in coastal defences (adaptation


    Quick notes on the Arctic:
    · Marine and land-based food web modifications
    · Biome distributional change (i.e. plant, animal, soil)
    o Fish = arctic char, animals = spruce beetle, caribou
    · Habitat loss (e.g. sea ice loss in Arctic = polar bears)
    · Treeline advance northwards means tundra is replaced by boreal forest.
    -Geese = different migration pattern
    -Milankovitch cycles and solar variation (sunspots) mean there is an increase in UV rays reaching the oceans, which impairs photosynthesis and inhibits phytoplankton growth = death
    -This modifies marine food-webs, as well as land-based food webs (seals eat fish, multiplier effect)
    -Thawing of permafrost (up to 40% expected) releases large quantities of CH4

    Please anyone critique these notes, though
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    (Original post by itsConnor_)
    But is axial tilt/wobble not part of Milankovitch cycles occuring in 41 000 and 21 000 cycles? Just making sure I would be staying focused on the question if I started talking about this in relation to climate change effecting ecology in the Arctic. Also sunspots means more UV radiation? Terribly sorry for pestering you, you seem to know your stuff!
    Yeh, sorry, my teacher told me that although its good to state that the Milankovitch cycle has an effect, you have to explain what it actually is, not just name it. And yes, you would be staying on the question because its proven to cause global warming, even if it does happen every 41000 and 21000 cycles it still alters the amount of UV radiation reaching the earth. This also comes in handy if a question asks you to examine the physical vs human causes of climate change, or even if you have to evaluate an argument that climate change is a natural process. Don't worry, if you have any more questions, send them my way, it helps me to revise trying to explain it so hopefully we're helping each other
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    Any last minute revision on population structure / characteristics that we could be asked about? Is this about how UK population structure has changed over time (e.g. lower birth rates due to increased availability and social acceptance of contraception, status of women, etc.) and what other stuff?
 
 
 
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