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    Updated for better presentation --- There are definitely some questions missing from 2 and 3, can anyone remember them? Also if you found this helpful, some rep would be appreciated (bottom left)

    Question 1 [9]
    Spoiler:
    Show
    • What are lipids broken down into? [1]
    Glycerol (Tick Box)

    • Two control variables [2]
    Time interval of 2 minutes, volume of milk/water/bile/lipase solution

    • Where is lipase produced? [1]
    Pancreas, small intestine

    • Why did the pH decrease? [2]
    The milk was digested into fatty acid and glycerol, so the fatty acid reduced the pH

    • What evidence is there that bile helped the lipase? [1]
    The pH dropped faster with bile than with water

    • Why did they both end up on the same pH? [2]
    All of the fat in the milk had been digested so the same volume of fatty acid had been produced in each beaker, therefore they ended on the same pH which could not go any lower as no more fatty acid could be produced
    Question 2 [6]
    Spoiler:
    Show
    • Tape Measure, Light Intensity Meter and Ruler Question - The tape measure would be used as a transect line from the light area to the dark area to measure the distribution. At regular intervals such as every 2m, measure the length of the ivy leaves near to the transect using the ruler (measure from the same points on each leaf to keep results valid). Also measure the light intensity using the light meter. Repeat this at every interval and the results can then be used to test the hypothesis. To makethe results more valid, the transect can be done 3 times in different areas to increase the sample size
    Question 3 [6]
    Spoiler:
    Show
    • Runners question - you had to look at the graphs at the values for the runner at the very end of the exercise and put the values into the box [2?]

    • Main reason runner 1 had a higher cardiac output? [?]
    Person 2 had a much lower stroke rate (volume of blood leaving heart)

    • Explain why Runner 1 could run faster [4]
    His heart rate and the amount of blood being pumped was higher, so more oxygen and glucose could get to the muscle cells so they could do more respiration and would therefore have more energy, allowing them to contract and relax more to bring about more movement, therefore he was able to run faster
    Question 4 [10]
    Spoiler:
    Show
    • Where is DNA found in a cell? [2]
    In the nucleus, wound up tightly as chromosomes

    When a cell undergoes mitosis and splits, the two daughter cells have the same genetic material, explain how [2]
    Chromosomes duplicate before cell splits, so each daughter cell receives the same, full set of chromosomes

    • A plant needs energy to make glucose. Where does it get this energy from? [2]
    It gets the energy from the sun in the form of light: the chlorophyll in the mesophyll cells traps the light. (No idea what gains the second mark)

    • What does a plant use glucose for other than respiration? [4?]
    Cellulose, stored as insoluble fats and oils, stored as insoluble starch/in storage organs, used with nitrate ions to make amino acids and proteins
    Question 5 [7]
    Spoiler:
    Show

    (Muscle cell in the stomach with the mitochondria diagram)
    • what is the function of mitochondria? [2]
    Respiration to provide the rest of the cell with energy

    • Function of a ribosome? [1]
    Making/synthesising proteins

    • A ribosome cannot be seen through the light microscope, suggest why? [1]
    Ribosome is too small – higher magnification needed

    • What is the function of the muscle cells? [2]
    The cells work together as a tissue(muscle) to contract and relax in order to bring about movement and churn the food in the stomach

    • The measurement, magnifying question [1]
    400
    Question 6 [10?]
    Spoiler:
    Show

    • Archaeopteryx (dinosaur bird) – Suggest how this fossil was preserved. [?]
    Died and buried by sediments which created anoxic conditions meaning that microorganisms could not decay the body as they could not respire. Conditions for decay were not present. The organic/soft parts deteriorated but the hard parts (the bones) were infilled by sediments over time and thus preserved.

    • Suggest why the fossil record is incomplete [2]
    Fossils destroyed by geological activity. Conditions required for fossilization rarely occur therefore few organisms are ever fossilized.

    • Speciation from archaeopteryx [4]
    Single population of ancestor specieswas split up and isolated into multiple populations by a geographical barrier.Natural selection took place so in each population the most suitable genes werepassed on however because each population experienced different environments,different genes were passed on. This happened repeatedly until successful interbreeding was no longer possible.
    Question 7 [8]
    Spoiler:
    Show
    • Mendel and pea plants
    Ratio was 3.15:1 or 3:1. [1]

    Tick boxes: homozygous, homozygous,heterozygous [3?]

    • Why was Mendel's theory not accepted by scientists? [2]
    He was a monk not a scientist (noscientific credibility). Genes, DNA, chromosomes etc had not been discovered. He published his results in an obscure journal.

    •Cystic and poly
    1 copy of allele need for polydactyl, 2 copies needed for cystic fibrosis [1]
    • The stupid robber who left his fingerprints [1]
    B



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    I thought the first one was glucose😓😓😓😓😓


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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    Question 1
    • What are lipids broken down into?
    Glycerol (Tick Box)
    • Two control variables
    Time interval of 2 minutes, volume of milk/water/bile/lipase solution
    • Where is lipase produced?
    Pancreas, small intestine
    • Why did the pH decrease?
    The milk was digested into fattyacid and glycerol, so the fatty acid reduced the pH
    • What evidence is there that bile helped the lipase?
    The pH dropped faster with bile than with water

    Question 2
    • Tape Measure, Light Intensity Meter and Ruler Question - The tape measure would be used as a transect line from thelight area to the dark area to measure the distribution. At regular intervalssuch as every 2m, measure the length of the ivy leaves near to the transectusing the ruler (measure from the same points on each leaf to keep resultsvalid). Also measure the light intensity using the light meter. Repeat this atevery interval and the results can then be used to test the hypothesis. To makethe results more valid, the transect can be done 3 times in different areas toincrease the sample size

    Question 3
    • Runners question - you had to look atthe graphs at the values for the runner at the very end of the exercise and put the values into the box
    • Explain why Runner 1 could run faster- His heart rate and the amount of blood being pumped was higher, so moreoxygen and glucose could get to the muscle cells so they could do morerespiration and would therefore have more energy, allowing them to contract andrelax more to bring about more movement. Runner 2 had a lower heart rate and alower amount of blood being pumped, so he may have anaerobically respired causing lactic acid build up causing muscle pain, which meant that he/she ran slower.

    Question 4
    • Where is DNA found in a cell?
    In the nucleus, wound up tightly as chromosomes
    • Muscle cell in the stomach with the mitochondria-
    • what is the function of mitochondria?
    Respiration to provide the rest of the cell with energy
    • A ribosome cannot be seen through the light microscope, suggest why?
    Ribosome is too small – higher magnification needed
    • What is the function of the muscle cells?
    The cells work together as a tissue(muscle) to contract and relax in order to bring about movement and churn the food in the stomach
    • The measurement, magnifying question
    400

    Question 5

    • Archaeopteryx (dinosaur bird) – Suggest how this fossil was preserved.
    Died and buried by sediments which created anoxic conditions meaning that microorganisms could not decay the body as they could not respire. The organic/soft parts deteriorated but the hardbones were preserved.
    • Suggest why the fossil record is incomplete – Fossils destroyed by geological activity. Conditions required for fossilization rarely occur therefore few organisms are ever fossilized.
    • Speciation from archaeopteryx
    Single population of ancestor specieswas split up and isolated into multiple populations by a geographical barrier.Natural selection took place so in each population the most suitable genes werepassed on however because each population experienced different environments,different genes were passed on. This happened repeatedly until successful interbreeding was no longer possible.

    Question 6

    • Mendel and pea plants
    Ratio was 3.15:1 or 3:1. Tick boxes: homozygous, homozygous,heterozygous
    • Why was Mendel's theory not accepted by scientists?
    He was a monk not a scientist (noscientific credibility). Genes, DNA, chromosomes etc had not been discovered. He published his results in an obscure journal.
    •Cystic and poly
    1 copy of allele need for polydactyl, 2 copies needed for cystic fibrosis
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Credit to BetaThanYou for lots of this. As stated, this is extremely rough and incomplete. Any help would be appreciated: adding extra questions or answers that I've missed off. These may not be right of course, so bear that in mind but hopefully most of them are correct. I'm quite strong at biology so I should be able to explain the answers if you ask me. Hope this helps guys and good luck with exams.



    Question 6 never specified whether or not the ratio needs to simplified so shouldn't it remain 705:242 especially because it was only 1 mark anyway..?
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    Not sure. 3:1 is the theoretical answer and common sense dictates that its a much better ratio to use than 705:242, but admittedly its a surprising question for 1 mark because it doesn't divide completely, so perhaps you'd get the mark but putting 3.15:1 or 3:1 is more likely to be right I think. Thanks for reply though because it means at least someone is making use of this
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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    Not sure. 3:1 is the theoretical answer and common sense dictates that its a much better ratio to use than 705:242, but admittedly its a surprising question for 1 mark because it doesn't divide completely, so perhaps you'd get the mark but putting 3.15:1 or 3:1 is more likely to be right I think. Thanks for reply though because it means at least someone is making use of this
    Btw also for Q5, you could say the conditions for decay were not present. E.g in a peat bog as it's too acidic.
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    is that EXACT experiment with the measuring tape, ruler and light intensity meter needed for the answer to be correct? or do you think other types of experiments could suffice?
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    (Original post by Calzs34)
    Btw also for Q5, you could say the conditions for decay were not present. E.g in a peat bog as it's too acidic.
    Added, thank you
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    (Original post by amairah)
    is that EXACT experiment with the measuring tape, ruler and light intensity meter needed for the answer to be correct? or do you think other types of experiments could suffice?
    They wanted you to use a transect because that was the basis for the question, I just put in examples of distances. What did you put as your method?
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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    Question 1
    • What are lipids broken down into?
    Glycerol (Tick Box)
    • Two control variables
    Time interval of 2 minutes, volume of milk/water/bile/lipase solution
    • Where is lipase produced?
    Pancreas, small intestine
    • Why did the pH decrease?
    The milk was digested into fattyacid and glycerol, so the fatty acid reduced the pH
    • What evidence is there that bile helped the lipase?
    The pH dropped faster with bile than with water

    Question 2
    • Tape Measure, Light Intensity Meter and Ruler Question - The tape measure would be used as a transect line from the light area to the dark area to measure the distribution. At regular intervals such as every 2m, measure the length of the ivy leaves near to the transect using the ruler (measure from the same points on each leaf to keep results valid). Also measure the light intensity using the light meter. Repeat this at every interval and the results can then be used to test the hypothesis. To makethe results more valid, the transect can be done 3 times in different areas to increase the sample size

    Question 3
    • Runners question - you had to look atthe graphs at the values for the runner at the very end of the exercise and put the values into the box
    • Explain why Runner 1 could run faster- His heart rate and the amount of blood being pumped was higher, so moreoxygen and glucose could get to the muscle cells so they could do morerespiration and would therefore have more energy, allowing them to contract andrelax more to bring about more movement. Runner 2 had a lower heart rate and alower amount of blood being pumped, so he may have anaerobically respired causing lactic acid build up causing muscle pain, which meant that he/she ran slower.

    Question 4
    • Where is DNA found in a cell?
    In the nucleus, wound up tightly as chromosomes
    • Muscle cell in the stomach with the mitochondria-
    • what is the function of mitochondria?
    Respiration to provide the rest of the cell with energy
    • A ribosome cannot be seen through the light microscope, suggest why?
    Ribosome is too small – higher magnification needed
    • What is the function of the muscle cells?
    The cells work together as a tissue(muscle) to contract and relax in order to bring about movement and churn the food in the stomach
    • The measurement, magnifying question
    400

    Question 5

    • Archaeopteryx (dinosaur bird) – Suggest how this fossil was preserved.
    Died and buried by sediments which created anoxic conditions meaning that microorganisms could not decay the body as they could not respire. Conditions for decay were not present. The organic/soft parts deteriorated but the hard bones were preserved.
    • Suggest why the fossil record is incomplete – Fossils destroyed by geological activity. Conditions required for fossilization rarely occur therefore few organisms are ever fossilized.
    • Speciation from archaeopteryx
    Single population of ancestor specieswas split up and isolated into multiple populations by a geographical barrier.Natural selection took place so in each population the most suitable genes werepassed on however because each population experienced different environments,different genes were passed on. This happened repeatedly until successful interbreeding was no longer possible.

    Question 6

    • Mendel and pea plants
    Ratio was 3.15:1 or 3:1. Tick boxes: homozygous, homozygous,heterozygous
    • Why was Mendel's theory not accepted by scientists?
    He was a monk not a scientist (noscientific credibility). Genes, DNA, chromosomes etc had not been discovered. He published his results in an obscure journal.
    •Cystic and poly
    1 copy of allele need for polydactyl, 2 copies needed for cystic fibrosis
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Credit to BetaThanYou for lots of this. As stated, this is extremely rough and incomplete. Any help would be appreciated: adding extra questions or answers that I've missed off. These may not be right of course, so bear that in mind but hopefully most of them are correct. I'm quite strong at biology so I should be able to explain the answers if you ask me. Hope this helps guys and good luck with exams.


    Was the fossil question not about casts and impressions.Plus you have left out the plants part, what glucose is used for and how is energy from the sun is used.
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    (Original post by 2015studenttt)
    Was the fossil question not about casts and impressions.Plus you have left out the plants part, what glucose is used for and how is energy from the sun is used.
    I'm pretty sure the fossil question is just 'Suggest how this fossil could have been preserved' but I am very forgetful. And yes thank you for reminding about the plant stuff, I'll add it now
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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    I'm pretty sure the fossil question is just 'Suggest how this fossil could have been preserved' but I am very forgetful. And yes thank you for reminding about the plant stuff, I'll add it now
    I probably read it wrong. What do u think the grade boundaries will be?
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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    Added, thank you
    It's funny, I can think of that now but in the exam I couldn't. I hate exams, they do not represent an individual
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    (Original post by 2015studenttt)
    I probably read it wrong. What do u think the grade boundaries will be?
    Using the past 2 years and my general prediction, about: 130/180 for A*110/180 for A75-80/180 for B over all 3 papers. So maybe like 43 for B2 and 46 for B3 (A*)? What do you think?
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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    They wanted you to use a transect because that was the basis for the question, I just put in examples of distances. What did you put as your method?
    Also for my transect question I said at every 2m intervals place quadrants which are 1by 1m. And then count the amount of leaves, then measure the size. Then add the sizes together. Divide by the number of leaves to produce a mean average. Then measure light intensity, repeat for the next 100m by using 2m intervals. Then repeat the experiment a minimum of 3 times to produce a mean average of all your results, thus increasing the validity. But idk if quadrants were right? Or not?
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    Anyone else scared?
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    (Original post by neon_reaper)
    Using the past 2 years and my general prediction, about: 130/180 for A*110/180 for A75-80/180 for B over all 3 papers. So maybe like 43 for B2 and 46 for B3 (A*)? What do you think?
    Are the ums scores not out of 400 so 360 is needed for an a*
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    what about a mark scheme for B3? I'm thinking 46/60 for a* in B3 since most people found it quite easy, for B2 i'd say 43/60 for a*.
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    (Original post by 2015studenttt)
    Are the ums scores not out of 400 so 360 is needed for an a*
    Are you doing it as core additional or as separate units?
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    (Original post by Calzs34)
    Also for my transect question I said at every 2m intervals place quadrants which are 1by 1m. And then count the amount of leaves, then measure the size. Then add the sizes together. Divide by the number of leaves to produce a mean average. Then measure light intensity, repeat for the next 100m by using 2m intervals. Then repeat the experiment a minimum of 3 times to produce a mean average of all your results, thus increasing the validity. But idk if quadrants were right? Or not?
    That's a really good answer but the problem is that you used quadrants when they specifically gave you equipment, so I'm not sure. You'll definitely get some of the marks for saying about the intervals, measuring the leaves, repeating it 3 times and increasing the validity though
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    (Original post by Calzs34)
    Also for my transect question I said at every 2m intervals place quadrants which are 1by 1m. And then count the amount of leaves, then measure the size. Then add the sizes together. Divide by the number of leaves to produce a mean average. Then measure light intensity, repeat for the next 100m by using 2m intervals. Then repeat the experiment a minimum of 3 times to produce a mean average of all your results, thus increasing the validity. But idk if quadrants were right? Or not?
    ^^ This is probably correct. I'm pretty sure you'd just have to write about transects to get the marks not quadrats.
 
 
 
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