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    • Thread Starter

    I had all of the below in useful tables in a document. Really good and wanted to share...any advice on how to put it up properly?


    Term S E A
    Structure and form Fourteeners

    Iambic pentameter

    Perfection mirrors her perfection
    Narrative stance -First person objective pronoun
    -third person sing subjective pronoun

    -third person sing subjective again -“me”


    “she” -Personal & intimate nature with his lover
    -unusually referring to love as a male. Perhaps using archaic ideology that men are more dominant so his love most dominant?
    -we never do find out her name=courtly love so anon
    Grammar and sentence structure Abstract noun

    Complex declarative sharply concluded with caesura “love”

    Highlights abstract nature of the emotion. Proposes the q..is love real? Right to marry for convenience?
    Lexis and imagery -Militarised lexical set

    -“reign”, ”built”, ”captive”, “clad, “fought”, “banner”

    -“doubtful hope” - the fight for true love. Marriage was of convenience whereas courtly love was real; but couldn’t ‘have’ her

    -oxymoronic like courtly love
    Phonology ABAB rhyme scheme
    Rigidity of structure mirrors the rigidity of their courtly love
    Orthography and punctuation Archaic spelling

    Proper noun
    “doth”, “eke”, “taketh”

    “love” Reflects the archaic nature of their love

    Personifies the proper noun to provide a sense of realism and humanity- brings their love to life
    (Henry Howard: Love doth reign…)
    An earl and soldier who engaged in the fashionable pastime, courtly love. Despite his married status, courting a woman who he loved was traditionally acceptable as marriage was often an act of convenience not of passion. This theme is highlighted in his poem “love doth reign and live within my thought”. Howard would have written it to display his affection to his lover but as a public figure he would have acknowledged it’d be read by others which is arguably why he abstains from a directly intimate tone and refrains from stating her name.
    Term S E A
    Structure and form Loose iambic tetrameter

    Keeps it natural and loose to show that marriage is also?
    Narrative stance Second person plural

    Third person sing

    “his race will be run” Dissociates himself from the women and collectivises them.

    Personifying the sun to show even nature is encouraging marriage...hence god?...so must get married
    Grammar and sentence structure Many independent clauses

    Comparative and superlative combined
    “to-morrow will be dying”

    “worse, and worst” Simplifies the tone and make it understandable (women treated as dumb in those days?)

    Emphasising the hardship of a non-married life.
    Lexis and imagery Lexical set of nature
    “rosebuds”, “flower”, “sun” Reflects the fragility of life but also suggests that marriage is natural too
    Phonology ABAB

    Orthography and punctuation Archaic spelling

    “to-morrow” Highlights the age of his ideas.
    Robert Herrick: To virgins, to make much of time
    To Virgins urges young women to quickly marry. The ironic nature of Herrick’s literary piece is prevalent throughout reading the poem as the poet himself remained unmarried throughout the duration of his life. However, despite it being when he was merely aged one, his father’s death may have haunted Herrick and urged him to encourage others to reap all of life’s bounties. The women in his writing are thought to be fictional as he remained strongly religious through his lifetime and any affairs with women would not have been well known.

    Term S E A
    Structure and form Iambic tetrameter

    AABB rhyming couplets
    Quite strict with this-to make it more readable out loud…esp in a mocking tone?

    Again it’s more simple and humour is more easily implied
    Narrative stance Third person sing possessive
    “his bed” Doesn’t name him but makes it clear cut who he is referring to
    Grammar and sentence structure Proper noun

    Indefinite article-substitution

    “A” Fake formality to emphasise his mockery.

    Unable to say which general as may have got backlash. However, many hints throughout poem so sly…if anything more mockery.
    Lexis and imagery Independent clause

    Lexical set of religion
    “The last loud trump”

    “trump” “candle” “dirt” Provides imagery of judgement day as it alludes to God and the angel of death. Using the country’s religious beliefs to mock.

    Active part of the church so reminding people what happens when you go against God’s teachings
    Phonology Parallelism

    Sibilance+intensifier “nor widows’ sighs, nor orphans’ tears”

    “so great a stink” Prosodically pleasing hence more widely distributed. +using societies most vulnerable to show his evil nature.

    Alludes to the prosodics of a snake which alludes to satan which alludes to evil.
    Orthography and punctuation Repetitive exclamatories


    “His Grace! Impossible! What dead!”

    “whence” Adds full on sarcasm

    Shows archaic glorification of generals
    Jonathan Swift: A satirical elegy…
    During Swift’s lifetime elegies became nationally popular and it may have been why Swift decided to construct his next literary piece to fit the trend. However, he was also a leading figure in church and published this while he was heavily involved in religious movements so this could have been his way of being moralising and encouraging his readers, often upper class members of society, to be better people

    Term S E A
    Structure and form Iambic tetrameter

    Quatrain-couplet rhyme scheme
    Is it loose to show the loose and carefree nature
    Narrative stance First person subjective singular

    Third person subjective plural “I”

    “they” Provides a lonesome tone which is strange as his sister with him as she reported in her diary. Evidently you get lost in yourself when with nature

    Disembodying man from nature
    Grammar and sentence structure Dynamic present participles

    “fluttering and dancing” Gives them life and shows nature to be joyful and zestful
    Lexis and imagery Collective noun x2

    Hyperbolic cardinal
    “crowd” “host”

    “ten thousand” Vast amount of daffodils are being provided with an angelic sense

    Connotes to them being overwhelming and shows nature is also a powerful force, not just man and its machines.
    Phonology Plosive alliteration

    sibilance “but be gay”

    “stars that shine” Slight harshness to lightly force the idea that happiness surrounds nature as opposed to cities and machines.

    Soothing effect
    Orthography and punctuation Parenthesis

    “I gazed-and gazed-“ Slows down pace of poem and causes reader to slow down appreciate nature with wordsworth.
    William Wordsworth: I wandered lonely as a cloud
    I wandered lonely as a cloud was constructed after Wordsworth, like many romantic poets, took a walk around the Lake District accompanied by his sister. Despite the poem being criticised by leading poets like Byron, it conveys this romanticised version of nature; in a time where the industrial revolution was overwhelming Britain, Wordsworth may have felt the necessity to reinforce the beauties of nature to all members of society (as Byron preached against its simplistic nature which would have appealed the working class also, not just the traditional readers-the upper class).

    Term S E A
    Structure and form Sestets
    Iambic pentameter
    Perfection mirroring her
    Narrative stance Third person sing
    “she” “She” is never named which not only adds a sense of mystery but confirms Byron’s womanising ways…
    Grammar and sentence structure Parallelism

    Dexicial phrase “one shade the more, one shade the less”

    “that tint that glows” Implying she’s utter perfection & anything different would ruin that
    -hints that she’s not being exposed to harshness which suggests that she is of the upper class. Also his consistent description of looks says not true love?
    Lexis and imagery Synecdoche
    “heart” Highlights her purity and suggests that it is not a sexual love as could have used this technique for more explicit parts of her.
    Phonology Sibilance
    “serenely sweet” Connotes this ethereal sense around her and the ‘S’ sound concretises this through soothing.
    Orthography and punctuation Exclamatory

    “love is innocent!” Is he wishing it wasn’t innocent? Tones of desperation seeping through.
    George Gordon Byron (Lord): She walks in beauty.
    Lord Byron was often known for his ‘womanising’ ways and which partly led to an end in his marriage. Furthermore, rumours of incest encircled him and his half sister which could be why he refrains from naming this woman he so dearly loves throughout his poem. However, his negative reputation was juxtaposed as he became one of the most popular romantic leaders at his time and was often found to criticise literary pieces of genius’ such as William Wordsworth.
    Term S E A
    Structure and form Single stanza
    Strict iambic pentameter

    -Single anxiety
    -shows his devotion to God through being strict and limiting himself in all aspects ie. Here in pleasure
    Narrative stance First person sing
    Second person sing
    “you” [god] No other narrative stance to show the personal and intimate relationship God and his follower has.
    Grammar and sentence structure Imperative opening

    Repetitive elision

    “batter my heart”

    “person’d” “o’erthrow” “captiv’d” “betroth’d” The command is strong and alarming as unusual word choice…esp combined with God=altruistic

    Constricting himself so much in order to fit iambs…control freak? Hence crazy side or just further showing his devotion
    Lexis and imagery Lexical set of ‘human’ relationship

    Semantic field of battle
    “I love you” “bethroth’d” “divorce me” “take mee” “ravish me”

    “batter” “rise” “o’erthrow” “force” “usurpt” “defend” Sexual undertones present here… a time where sex/relationships often in poems. Is he highlighting they need to prioritise God/ he is dominant in all kinds of relationships?

    Is religion a person battle for him? Clearly a struggle for him.
    Phonology Plosive alliteration
    “breake, blowe, burn” Reinforces violence and harshness-is he punishing himself for previously being catholic?
    Orthography and punctuation

    John Donne: batter my heart…
    Donne was raised as a catholic, his father being one of the most famous Catholics at the time; however, as he grew older he was influenced by society and converted to Protestantism. He became an influential religious leader and this is reflected in his poem, batter my heart which is consumed by a religious lexis. However, this poem would be considered ‘shocking’ for sermons so it may have been restrained for just friends/ family or just an outlet for him.

    Term S E A
    Structure and form Quatrains
    Loosely based around iambic tetrameter

    Shows how functionality leaves your life after death as grieving consumes you.
    Narrative stance 1st +3rd
    “I” thy” Unable to refer to hallam himself
    Grammar and sentence structure Complex sentences

    Subordinate adverbial clause

    “never come to back to me” Complex nature of his thoughts as he is unable to express complex feelings.

    Show he is accepting time is moving on but is unable to let himself do too.
    Lexis and imagery Synecdoche

    “vanish’d hand” “voice that is still”

    “sailor lad” Can’t refer to his friend as almost in denial. Almost aware he it will be published so wants to keep intimate relationship up.

    Hallam died young so reminds Tennyson of him as often cheeky/laddish
    Phonology Plosive repetition

    “break, break, break” Harshness creates sympathy for Tennyson as it conveys his distraught thoughts.
    Orthography and punctuation Exclamatory when referring to the sea

    Sea! Woeful vocative/proper noun shows his dismay as he turns to nature to comfort him
    Alfred lord Tennyson: break, break, break
    Lord Tennyson constructed this poem following the death of his friend, Arthur Hallam. It was written as part of an elegy for him and this can certainly be picked up throughout the literary piece through its mournful undertones.
    Term S E A
    Structure and form Quatrains
    Fourteeners Serious poetry
    Narrative stance 3rd person
    Members of society talking about religion-shows he’s addressing everyone
    Grammar and sentence structure Series of conditionals

    Indefinite article
    “might” “if” x2

    “a God” Hesitancy of people’s mind=religious crisis

    Christianity a monotheist religion so this is disgusting lol
    Lexis and imagery Connotation

    Lexical set of all members of society

    “youngster” “tradesman” “rich man” “country folk” Alludes to evil-he is mocking as surely not believing in God makes you a *****

    This intended for all members of society as all facing the religious revolution
    Phonology Sibilance

    Alliteration “sorrow strikes”

    “mostly married” Connotes this idea of evil which opposes God as it connotes to the hissing of a snake which is often associated which Satan.

    Alludes to a ‘m’ soothing noise which shows peace found in the hearts of religious people
    Orthography and punctuation Direct speech

    Proper noun
    “there is no God”

    “God” In first 4 stanzas to highlight the direct of issue of the decline of religion

    Perhaps he is more religious than he lets on as those who believed God to be dominant would capitalise his title.
    Arthur Hugh Clough: there is no God
    He himself rejected Church in Oxford and gave up his post as a teacher as he would not preach Christianity. However, throughout the duration of his poem he appears to mocking those who are abandoning their religion and uses those who are religious as almost a volta. Perhaps he is suggesting that the common people who are abandoning God are doing so without an educated decision and thus rush back to him in the times of hardship. Through stating many members of society it appears he is addressing all as opposed to making it a personal outlet for his frustrations.
    • TSR Community Team

    TSR Community Team
    Heya, I'm going to put this in the English forum for you as you should get more responses there.

    You should also check out the forum to see if there's any other threads there which might be helpful to you!

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Updated: May 14, 2015


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