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    Hi I tried to make an unofficial mark scheme for this. Please be free to add things

    1a. State one conclusion about the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction? (1 mark)
    -An increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction

    aii. One reason why? (1 mark)
    -Because the volume of gas being produced at 40 degrees was more rapid than at 20 degrees.

    a(iii). Average rate (1 mark)
    -2 cm cubed per second (I think)

    1 (b) two students should the student keep constant? (2 marks)
    -Mass of Marble Chips
    -Concentration of acid

    b ii. Increasing the surface area affect the rate of reaction? (2 marks)

    -Increases the rate of reaction
    -As the particles are colliding more frequently (more successful collisions)

    c. Why does a catalyst reduce costs?
    -Because less energy is needed to start the reaction (as it has a lower activation energy)

    (there may be alternatives)

    2 (a). What could the student see? (1 mark)
    -Copper being formed (brown) or zinc disappearing

    2(b).Improves the investigation? (2 marks)
    Improvement: Use a lid/ insulate the container
    Reason: Prevents heat from being transferred to the surroundings/escaping.

    2c (6 marker - will do later at some point)

    3 (a). How does a metal conduct electricity? (4 marks)
    -Delocalised electrons can move through the metal
    -Transfer electrical charge
    -Sea of moving electrons (structure)
    -Lattice of positive ions (structure)

    3(b). Describe the structure of an alloy is different to a metal (2 marks)
    -Different elements with different sizes
    -Distort layers in the mixture, preventing them from sliding over each other.
    OR
    -Irregular pattern of atoms.

    3(c). Why is Nitinol used in braces? (1 mark)
    -Hard/strong/corrosive-resistant/smart-alloy

    3(c) (ii). Why are coins not made out of pure copper? (1 mark)
    -Because it is too soft so will corrode

    3 (c) (iii)). Aluminium Oxide

    3 (c) (iv). How can the reaction produce two different products? (1 mark)
    -Made using different reaction conditions / any specified reaction condition (e.g. pressure, temperature).
    -Using different catalysts

    3(d). Instrumental methods are used to detect impurities? (2 marks)
    Any two from:
    -They use very little samples.
    -Accurate
    -Sensitive
    -Fast

    4 (a). Why does Lithium have 7 as it's atomic number? (3 marks)
    -3 protons
    -4 neutrons
    -3 + 4 = 7 which is its mass
    -electrons have a very small mass.

    4(b). Complete the sentences (2 marks)
    -Grams
    -Carbon-12

    4(c). Isotope differences (3 marks)
    -18-Oxygen had 2 more neutrons than 16-Oxygen
    -Same number of protons
    -Same number of electrons

    5 (a). Name a soluble compound that contains silver
    (1 mark)
    -Silver Nitrate

    5(a) ii Compound containing carbonate ions (1 mark)
    -Potassium or Sodium Carbonate

    5(b) (1 mark)
    -(insoluble)Base

    5(c) (i). State how lead nitrate can be obtained from lead nitrate oxide (1 mark)
    -Crystalisation
    -Evaporate and leave to dry.

    5c(ii) (1 mark)

    Pbo + 2HNO3 = PB(NO3) + H2O

    5c (iii). number of atoms in the compound
    -9

    5(d). Empirical Formula (4 marks)
    Pb2O3


    6(a). Structure and bonding in sodium chloride (4 marks)
    -Ionic Bonding
    -Sodium atoms lose one electron to form positive ions
    -Chloride ions gain one electron to form negative ions
    -Opposites attract
    -Giant ionic structure
    -Cubic Lattice
    -Electrostatic forces

    Any of these should get the mark I think

    6(b). Other products when brine is electrolysed (2 marks)
    -Sodium Hydroxide
    -Hydrogen

    6(c). Ethical reason for not putting Iodine in food (1 mark)
    -People may not want to have these extra Iodine amount (no choice)

    6(d) (i). (2 marks)
    -3 electrons lone pairs and one covalent bond

    6(d) (ii). Why does Iodine have a low melting point (3 marks)
    -Simple molecules
    -Weak intermollecular forces
    -Little energy needed to break them down

    6(d) (iii). Why does iodine not conduct electricity? (2 marks)
    -No overall charge so can't carry electrical charge

    (I'm not sure about this question)
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    (Original post by neil20143)
    hi i tried to make an unofficial mark scheme for this. Please be free to add things

    1a. State one conclusion about the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction? (1 mark)
    -an increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction

    aii. One reason why? (1 mark)
    -because the volume of gas being produced at 40 degrees was more rapid than at 20 degrees.

    A(iii). Average rate (1 mark)
    -2 cm cubed per second (i think)

    1 (b) two students should the student keep constant? (2 marks)
    -amount of water in trough
    -concentration of acid

    (although it may be mass of marble chips instead of amount of water but we'll have to see)

    b ii. Increasing the surface area affect the rate of reaction? (2 marks)

    -increases the rate of reaction
    -as the particles are colliding more frequently (more successful collisions)

    c. Why does a catalyst reduce costs?
    -because less energy is needed to start the reaction (as it has a lower activation energy)

    (there may be alternatives)

    2 (a). What could the student see? (1 mark)
    -copper being formed (brown) or zinc disappearing

    2(b).improves the investigation? (2 marks)
    improvement: Use a lid/ insulate the container
    reason: Prevents heat from being transferred to the surroundings/escaping.

    2c (6 marker - will do later at some point)

    3 (a). How does a metal conduct electricity? (4 marks)
    -delocalised electrons can move through the metal
    -transfer electrical charge
    -sea of moving electrons (structure)
    -lattice of positive ions (structure)

    3(b). Describe the structure of an alloy is different to a metal (2 marks)
    -different elements with different sizes
    -distort layers in the mixture, preventing them from sliding over each other.
    Or
    -irregular pattern of atoms.

    3(c). Why is nitinol used in braces? (1 mark)
    -hard/strong/corrosive-resistant/smart-alloy

    3(c) (ii). Why are coins not made out of pure copper? (1 mark)
    -because it is too soft so will corrode

    3 (c) (iii)). aluminium oxide

    3 (c) (iv). How can the reaction produce two different products? (1 mark)
    -made using different reaction conditions / any specified reaction condition (e.g. Pressure, temperature).
    -using different catalysts

    3(d). Instrumental methods are used to detect impurities? (2 marks)
    any two from:
    -they use very little samples.
    -accurate
    -sensitive
    -fast

    4 (a). Why does lithium have 7 as it's atomic number? (3 marks)
    -3 protons
    -4 neutrons
    -3 + 4 = 7 which is its mass
    -electrons have a very small mass.

    4(b). Complete the sentences (2 marks)
    -grams
    -carbon-12

    4(c). Isotope differences (3 marks)
    -18-oxygen had 2 more neutrons than 16-oxygen
    -same number of protons
    -same number of electrons

    5 (a). Name a soluble compound that contains silver
    (1 mark)
    -silver nitrate

    5(a) ii compound containing carbonate ions (1 mark)
    -potassium or sodium carbonate

    5(b) (1 mark)
    -(insoluble)base

    5(c) (i). State how lead nitrate can be obtained from lead nitrate oxide (1 mark)
    -crystalisation
    -evaporate and leave to dry.

    5c(ii) (1 mark)

    pbo + 2hno3 = pb(no3) + h2o

    5c (iii). Number of atoms in the compound
    -9

    5(d). Empirical formula (4 marks)
    pb2o3


    6(a). Structure and bonding in sodium chloride (4 marks)
    -ionic bonding
    -sodium atoms lose one electron to form positive ions
    -chloride ions gain one electron to form negative ions
    -opposites attract
    -giant ionic structure
    -cubic lattice
    -electrostatic forces

    any of these should get the mark i think

    6(b). other products when brine is electrolysed (2 marks)
    -sodium hydroxide
    -hydrogen

    6(c). Ethical reason for not putting iodine in food (1 mark)
    -people may not want to have these extra iodine amount (no choice)

    6(d) (i). (2 marks)
    -3 electrons lone pairs and one covalent bond

    6(d) (ii). Why does iodine have a low melting point (3 marks)
    -simple molecules
    -weak intermollecular forces
    -little energy needed to break them down

    6(d) (iii). Why does iodine not conduct electricity? (2 marks)
    -no overall charge so can't carry electrical charge

    (i'm not sure about this question)
    thankyou so much!
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    6 (d) iii, I put because there are no free ions to conduct the electricity, pretty confident on that. and for 1 (b) I put the concentration and mass of marble chips. could be wrong though!
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    (Original post by neil20143)
    Hi I tried to make an unofficial mark scheme for this. Please be free to add things

    1a. State one conclusion about the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction? (1 mark)
    -An increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction

    aii. One reason why? (1 mark)
    -Because the volume of gas being produced at 40 degrees was more rapid than at 20 degrees.

    a(iii). Average rate (1 mark)
    -2 cm cubed per second (I think)

    1 (b) two students should the student keep constant? (2 marks)
    -Amount of water in trough
    -Concentration of acid

    (although it may be mass of marble chips instead of amount of water but we'll have to see)

    b ii. Increasing the surface area affect the rate of reaction? (2 marks)

    -Increases the rate of reaction
    -As the particles are colliding more frequently (more successful collisions)

    c. Why does a catalyst reduce costs?
    -Because less energy is needed to start the reaction (as it has a lower activation energy)

    (there may be alternatives)

    2 (a). What could the student see? (1 mark)
    -Copper being formed (brown) or zinc disappearing

    2(b).Improves the investigation? (2 marks)
    Improvement: Use a lid/ insulate the container
    Reason: Prevents heat from being transferred to the surroundings/escaping.

    2c (6 marker - will do later at some point)

    3 (a). How does a metal conduct electricity? (4 marks)
    -Delocalised electrons can move through the metal
    -Transfer electrical charge
    -Sea of moving electrons (structure)
    -Lattice of positive ions (structure)

    3(b). Describe the structure of an alloy is different to a metal (2 marks)
    -Different elements with different sizes
    -Distort layers in the mixture, preventing them from sliding over each other.
    OR
    -Irregular pattern of atoms.

    3(c). Why is Nitinol used in braces? (1 mark)
    -Hard/strong/corrosive-resistant/smart-alloy

    3(c) (ii). Why are coins not made out of pure copper? (1 mark)
    -Because it is too soft so will corrode

    3 (c) (iii)). Aluminium Oxide

    3 (c) (iv). How can the reaction produce two different products? (1 mark)
    -Made using different reaction conditions / any specified reaction condition (e.g. pressure, temperature).
    -Using different catalysts

    3(d). Instrumental methods are used to detect impurities? (2 marks)
    Any two from:
    -They use very little samples.
    -Accurate
    -Sensitive
    -Fast

    4 (a). Why does Lithium have 7 as it's atomic number? (3 marks)
    -3 protons
    -4 neutrons
    -3 + 4 = 7 which is its mass
    -electrons have a very small mass.

    4(b). Complete the sentences (2 marks)
    -Grams
    -Carbon-12

    4(c). Isotope differences (3 marks)
    -18-Oxygen had 2 more neutrons than 16-Oxygen
    -Same number of protons
    -Same number of electrons

    5 (a). Name a soluble compound that contains silver
    (1 mark)
    -Silver Nitrate

    5(a) ii Compound containing carbonate ions (1 mark)
    -Potassium or Sodium Carbonate

    5(b) (1 mark)
    -(insoluble)Base

    5(c) (i). State how lead nitrate can be obtained from lead nitrate oxide (1 mark)
    -Crystalisation
    -Evaporate and leave to dry.

    5c(ii) (1 mark)

    Pbo + 2HNO3 = PB(NO3) + H2O

    5c (iii). number of atoms in the compound
    -9

    5(d). Empirical Formula (4 marks)
    Pb2O3


    6(a). Structure and bonding in sodium chloride (4 marks)
    -Ionic Bonding
    -Sodium atoms lose one electron to form positive ions
    -Chloride ions gain one electron to form negative ions
    -Opposites attract
    -Giant ionic structure
    -Cubic Lattice
    -Electrostatic forces

    Any of these should get the mark I think

    6(b). Other products when brine is electrolysed (2 marks)
    -Sodium Hydroxide
    -Hydrogen

    6(c). Ethical reason for not putting Iodine in food (1 mark)
    -People may not want to have these extra Iodine amount (no choice)

    6(d) (i). (2 marks)
    -3 electrons lone pairs and one covalent bond

    6(d) (ii). Why does Iodine have a low melting point (3 marks)
    -Simple molecules
    -Weak intermollecular forces
    -Little energy needed to break them down

    6(d) (iii). Why does iodine not conduct electricity? (2 marks)
    -No overall charge so can't carry electrical charge

    (I'm not sure about this question)

    Isn't 1b (i) the conc. of acid and the mass of marble chips ?
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    How can you remember all the questions lol.
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    (Original post by JG12333)
    6 (d) iii, I put because there are no free ions to conduct the electricity, pretty confident on that. and for 1 (b) I put the concentration and mass of marble chips
    I wrote that but I'm not sure if it's right.
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    [QUOTE=neil20143;55802315]Hi I tried to make an unofficial mark scheme for this. Please be free to add things

    1a. State one conclusion about the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction? (1 mark)
    -An increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction

    aii. One reason why? (1 mark)
    -Because the volume of gas being produced at 40 degrees was more rapid than at 20 degrees.

    a(iii). Average rate (1 mark)
    -2 cm cubed per second (I think)

    1 (b) two students should the student keep constant? (2 marks)
    -Amount of water in trough
    -Concentration of acid

    (although it may be mass of marble chips instead of amount of water but we'll have to see)

    b ii. Increasing the surface area affect the rate of reaction? (2 marks)

    -Increases the rate of reaction
    -As the particles are colliding more frequently (more successful collisions)

    c. Why does a catalyst reduce costs?
    -Because less energy is needed to start the reaction (as it has a lower activation energy)

    (there may be alternatives)

    2 (a). What could the student see? (1 mark)
    -Copper being formed (brown) or zinc disappearing

    2(b).Improves the investigation? (2 marks)
    Improvement: Use a lid/ insulate the container
    Reason: Prevents heat from being transferred to the surroundings/escaping.

    2c (6 marker - will do later at some point)

    3 (a). How does a metal conduct electricity? (4 marks)
    -Delocalised electrons can move through the metal
    -Transfer electrical charge
    -Sea of moving electrons (structure)
    -Lattice of positive ions (structure)

    3(b). Describe the structure of an alloy is different to a metal (2 marks)
    -Different elements with different sizes
    -Distort layers in the mixture, preventing them from sliding over each other.
    OR
    -Irregular pattern of atoms.

    3(c). Why is Nitinol used in braces? (1 mark)
    -Hard/strong/corrosive-resistant/smart-alloy

    3(c) (ii). Why are coins not made out of pure copper? (1 mark)
    -Because it is too soft so will corrode

    3 (c) (iii)). Aluminium Oxide

    3 (c) (iv). How can the reaction produce two different products? (1 mark)
    -Made using different reaction conditions / any specified reaction condition (e.g. pressure, temperature).
    -Using different catalysts

    3(d). Instrumental methods are used to detect impurities? (2 marks)
    Any two from:
    -They use very little samples.
    -Accurate
    -Sensitive
    -Fast

    4 (a). Why does Lithium have 7 as it's atomic number? (3 marks)
    -3 protons
    -4 neutrons
    -3 + 4 = 7 which is its mass
    -electrons have a very small mass.

    4(b). Complete the sentences (2 marks)
    -Grams
    -Carbon-12

    4(c). Isotope differences (3 marks)
    -18-Oxygen had 2 more neutrons than 16-Oxygen
    -Same number of protons
    -Same number of electrons

    5 (a). Name a soluble compound that contains silver
    (1 mark)
    -Silver Nitrate

    5(a) ii Compound containing carbonate ions (1 mark)
    -Potassium or Sodium Carbonate

    5(b) (1 mark)
    -(insoluble)Base

    5(c) (i). State how lead nitrate can be obtained from lead nitrate oxide (1 mark)
    -Crystalisation
    -Evaporate and leave to dry.

    5c(ii) (1 mark)

    Pbo + 2HNO3 = PB(NO3) + H2O

    5c (iii). number of atoms in the compound
    -9

    5(d). Empirical Formula (4 marks)
    Pb2O3


    6(a). Structure and bonding in sodium chloride (4 marks)
    -Ionic Bonding
    -Sodium atoms lose one electron to form positive ions
    -Chloride ions gain one electron to form negative ions
    -Opposites attract
    -Giant ionic structure
    -Cubic Lattice
    -Electrostatic forces

    Any of these should get the mark I think

    6(b). Other products when brine is electrolysed (2 marks)
    -Sodium Hydroxide
    -Hydrogen

    6(c). Ethical reason for not putting Iodine in food (1 mark)
    -People may not want to have these extra Iodine amount (no choice)

    6(d) (i). (2 marks)
    -3 electrons lone pairs and one covalent bond

    6(d) (ii). Why does Iodine have a low melting point (3 marks)
    -Simple molecules
    -Weak intermollecular forces
    -Little energy needed to break them down

    6(d) (iii). Why does iodine not conduct electricity? (2 marks)
    -No overall charge so can't carry electrical charge

    (I'm not sure about this question)[/QUOTE
    thankyou
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    (Original post by ibrahim24)
    Isn't 1b (i) the conc. of acid and the mass of marble chips ?
    I got that too bro
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    (Original post by ibrahim24)
    Isn't 1b (i) the conc. of acid and the mass of marble chips ?

    I've written it in brackets Again, I asked my teacher and she said water in trough should be right so the correct answer will have to be seen later when the mark scheme becomes available!
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    I put about the iodine having no charge but thinking back on it now I have a feeling it was something about no delocalised electrons


    Posted from TSR Mobile
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    cheers anyway bro. Just keep praying for low grade boundaries in all subjects !
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    (Original post by isabellagrace)
    I put about the iodine having no charge but thinking back on it now I have a feeling it was something about no delocalised electrons


    Posted from TSR Mobile
    I think that is right. It's in the AQA textbook anyway XD
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    (Original post by JG12333)
    6 (d) iii, I put because there are no free ions to conduct the electricity, pretty confident on that. and for 1 (b) I put the concentration and mass of marble chips. could be wrong though!
    I did the same for 1b!
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    for 4b) I put moles and carbon-12?? Was it just me that didn't put grams?
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    Just checking For what did the student see, is seeing copper being produce the right answer?
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    Has any one got a mark scheme for c3?xxxx
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    Would stirring the beaker to evenly distribute heat in solution count?
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    I wrote for the final question that although intermolecular forces in iodine are broken, the covalent bonds between two iodine atoms in an iodine molecule are not broken, meaning there are no delocalised electrons which can carry charge.

    Is that valid?
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    hi,

    6(d) (iii). Why does iodine not conduct electricity? (2 marks)-No overall charge so can't carry electrical charge

    a better answer would be

    there are no delocalised electrons to carry the current


    3(c) (ii). Why are coins not made out of pure copper? (1 mark)-Because it is too soft so will corrode

    i believe that another reason is

    too high maluability as of structure

    6 mark question?
    i think i made an error in this
    was the reaction endothermic?
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    for 1 a(ii) i said because there is a steeper gradient which shows the fast reaction? would i still get a mark? help!!!!!
 
 
 
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