TheRock96
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So i don't know if there is anything like this. I know there are already threads about the exams but this is just so people can ask qustion and get help for the next exam
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rajansm1
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can someone post a prediction of 2015 F212 paper
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lana banana
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What do we need to know about (/the differences between) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species?
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lissy12345alicia
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i think you need to know the difference between the two classification systems on domains and one based on kingdoms. They seem to be popular exam questions!
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JollyWolf
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Describe the structure and mode of action of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, including the significance of cell signalling and the role of memory cells.

1.) what are the chances of a big question on this topic tomorrow?
2.) can anyone explain this please because I've read loads of stuff about it and I still don't understand it

thank you
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lissy12345alicia
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immune_response_summary (1).pdf
(Original post by JollyWolf)
Describe the structure and mode of action of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, including the significance of cell signalling and the role of memory cells.

1.) what are the chances of a big question on this topic tomorrow?
2.) can anyone explain this please because I've read loads of stuff about it and I still don't understand it

thank you
cell signalling is the communication between cells using proteins such as hormones, they are used when cytokines are produced by helper t cells. There are various types of cytokines such as:

Monkines which attract neutrophills and stimulate b cells

Interleukins which cause proliferation and differentiation of b and t cells

Inteferon which stimuate t killer cells and inhibt virus replication

(however i don't think we are expected to know these in great detail but should be able to outline the roles)
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lissy12345alicia
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immune_response_summary (1).pdf



The picture is summary of the immune response
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JollyWolf
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(Original post by lissy12345alicia)
immune_response_summary (1).pdf

cell signalling is the communication between cells using proteins such as hormones, they are used when cytokines are produced by helper t cells. There are various types of cytokines such as:

Monkines which attract neutrophills and stimulate b cells

Interleukins which cause proliferation and differentiation of b and t cells

Inteferon which stimuate t killer cells and inhibt virus replication

(however i don't think we are expected to know these in great detail but should be able to outline the roles)
thank you so much
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lissy12345alicia
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its okay, hope its helped. The immune response is so confusing and hard to find clear answers....
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lissy12345alicia
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does anyone know the difference between neutrophills, marcophages and phagocytes?
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Meloddymaybe
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(Original post by lissy12345alicia)
does anyone know the difference between neutrophills, marcophages and phagocytes?
Both macrophages and neutrophils are a form of phagocyte.

Macrophages start off as monocytes, travelling through the blood, before turning into macrophages. They take part in phagocytosis - engulfing pathogens - and act as antigen presenting cells.

Neutrophils engulf pathogens, but don't present them. I think they're also quite short-lived, whereas macrophages last for longer in the bloodstream?

I don't think we really have to know the difference at this stage but I hope this helped (:
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lissy12345alicia
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thank you so much that has helped!!
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